Pseudo-Hippocrates De aeribus, aquis, locis

glōssa.dk

George Hinge

 

Hippocrates
On Airs, Waters, and Places

 

 

translated by Francis Adams

1 Ἰητρικὴν ὅστις βούλεται ὀρθῶς ζητέειν, τάδε χρὴ ποιέειν· πρῶτον μὲν ἐνθυμέεσθαι τὰς ὥρας τοῦ ἔτεος, ὅ τι δύναται ἀπεργάζεσθαι ἑκάστη· οὐ γὰρ ἐοίκασιν οὐδὲν, ἀλλὰ πουλὺ διαφέρουσιν αὐταί τε ἑωυτέων καὶ ἐν τῇσι μεταβολῇσιν· ἔπειτα δὲ τὰ πνεύματα τὰ θερμά τε καὶ τὰ ψυχρά· μάλιστα μὲν τὰ κοινὰ πᾶσιν ἀνθρώποισιν, ἔπειτα δὲ καὶ τὰ ἐν ἑκάστῃ χώρῃ ἐπιχώρια ἐόντα. δεῖ δὲ καὶ τῶν ὑδάτων ἐνθυμέεσθαι τὰς δυνάμιας· ὥσπερ γὰρ ἐν τῷ στόματι διαφέρουσι καὶ ἐν τῷ σταθμῷ, οὕτω καὶ ἡ δύναμις διαφέρει πουλὺ ἑκάστου. ὥστε, ἐς πόλιν ἐπειδὰν ἀφίκηταί τις ἧς ἄπειρός ἐστι, διαφροντίσαι χρὴ τὴν θέσιν αὐτέης, ὅκως κέεται καὶ πρὸς τὰ πνεύματα καὶ πρὸς τὰς ἀνατολὰς τοῦ ἡλίου· οὐ γὰρ τωὐτὸ δύναται ἥτις πρὸς βορέην κέεται, καὶ ἥτις πρὸς νότον, οὐδ' ἥτις πρὸς ἥλιον ἀνίσχοντα, οὐδ' ἥτις πρὸς δύνοντα. ταῦτα δὲ ἐνθυμέεσθαι ὡς κάλλιστα· καὶ τῶν ὑδάτων πέρι ὡς ἔχουσι, καὶ πότερον ἑλώδεσι χρέονται καὶ μαλακοῖσιν, ἢ σκληροῖσί τε καὶ ἐκ μετεώρων καὶ ἐκ πετρωδέων, εἴτε ἁλυκοῖσι καὶ ἀτεράμνοισιν· καὶ τὴν γῆν, πότερον ψιλή τε καὶ ἄνυδρος, ἢ δασεῖα καὶ ἔφυδρος, καὶ εἴτε ἐν κοίλῳ ἐστὶ καὶ πνιγηρὴ, εἴτε μετέωρος καὶ ψυχρή· καὶ τὴν δίαιταν τῶν ἀνθρώπων, ὁκοίῃ ἥδονται, πότερον φιλοπόται καὶ ἀριστηταὶ καὶ ἀταλαίπωροι, ἢ φιλογυμνασταί τε καὶ φιλόπονοι, καὶ ἐδωδοὶ καὶ ἄποτοι. WHOEVER wishes to investigate medicine properly, should proceed thus: in the first place to consider the seasons of the year, and what effects each of them produces for they are not at all alike, but differ much from themselves in regard to their changes. Then the winds, the hot and the cold, especially such as are common to all countries, and then such as are peculiar to each locality. We must also consider the qualities of the waters, for as they differ from one another in taste and weight, so also do they differ much in their qualities. In the same manner, when one comes into a city to which he is a stranger, he ought to consider its situation, how it lies as to the winds and the rising of the sun; for its influence is not the same whether it lies to the north or the south, to the rising or to the setting sun. These things one ought to consider most attentively, and concerning the waters which the inhabitants use, whether they be marshy and soft, or hard, and running from elevated and rocky situations, and then if saltish and unfit for cooking; and the ground, whether it be naked and deficient in water, or wooded and well watered, and whether it lies in a hollow, confined situation, or is elevated and cold; and the mode in which the inhabitants live, and what are their pursuits, whether they are fond of drinking and eating to excess, and given to indolence, or are fond of exercise and labor, and not given to excess in eating and drinking.

2 καὶ ἀπὸ τουτέων χρὴ ἐνθυμέεσθαι ἕκαστα. εἰ γὰρ ταῦτα εἰδείη τις καλῶς, μάλιστα μὲν πάντα, εἰ δὲ μὴ, τά γε πλεῖστα, οὐκ ἂν αὐτὸν λανθάνοι ἐς πόλιν ἀφικνεόμενον, ἧς ἂν ἄπειρος ᾖ, οὔτε νουσήματα ἐπιχώρια, οὔτε τῶν κοινῶν ἡ φύσις ὁκοίη τίς ἐστιν· ὥστε μὴ ἀπορέεσθαι ἐν τῇ θεραπείῃ τῶν νούσων, μηδὲ διαμαρτάνειν, ἃ εἰκός ἐστι γίγνεσθαι, ἢν μή τις ταῦτα πρότερον εἰδὼς προφροντίσῃ. περὶ ἑκάστου δὲ, χρόνου προιόντος καὶ τοῦ ἐνιαυτοῦ, λέγοι ἂν ὁκόσα τε νουσήματα μέλλει πάγκοινα τὴν πόλιν κατασχήσειν ἢ θέρεος ἢ χειμῶνος, ὁκόσα τε ἴδια ἑκάστῳ κίνδυνος γίγνεσθαι ἐκ μεταβολῆς τῆς διαίτης. εἰδὼς γὰρ τῶν ὡρέων τὰς μεταβολὰς καὶ τῶν ἄστρων ἐπιτολάς τε καὶ δύσιας, καθότι ἕκαστον τουτέων γίγνεται, προειδείη ἂν τὸ ἔτος ὁκοῖόν τι μέλλει γίγνεσθαι. οὕτως ἄν τις ἐρευνώμενος καὶ προγιγνώσκων τοὺς καιροὺς, μάλιστ' ἂν εἰδείη περὶ ἑκάστου, καὶ τὰ πλεῖστα τυγχάνοι τῆς ὑγιείης, καὶ κατ' ὀρθὸν φέροιτο οὐκ ἐλάχιστα ἐν τῇ τέχνῃ. εἰ δὲ δοκέοι τις ταῦτα μετεωρολόγα εἶναι, εἰ μετασταίη τῆς γνώμης, μάθοι ἂν ὅτι οὐκ ἐλάχιστον μέρος ξυμβάλλεται ἀστρονομίη ἐς ἰητρικὴν, ἀλλὰ πάνυ πλεῖστον. ἅμα γὰρ τῇσιν ὥρῃσι καὶ αἱ κοιλίαι μεταβάλλουσι τοῖσιν ἀνθρώποισιν. 2. From these things he must proceed to investigate everything else. For if one knows all these things well, or at least the greater part of them, he cannot miss knowing, when he comes into a strange city, either the diseases peculiar to the place, or the particular nature of common diseases, so that he will not be in doubt as to the treatment of the diseases, or commit mistakes, as is likely to be the case provided one had not previously considered these matters. And in particular, as the season and the year advances, he can tell what epidemic diseases will attack the city, either in summer or in winter, and what each individual will be in danger of experiencing from the change of regimen. For knowing the changes of the seasons, the risings and settings of the stars, how each of them takes place, he will be able to know beforehand what sort of a year is going to ensue. Having made these investigations, and knowing beforehand the seasons, such a one must be acquainted with each particular, and must succeed in the preservation of health, and be by no means unsuccessful in the practice of his art. And if it shall be thought that these things belong rather to meteorology, it will be admitted, on second thoughts, that astronomy contributes not a little, but a very great deal, indeed, to medicine. For with the seasons the digestive organs of men undergo a change.

3 ὅκως δὲ χρὴ ἕκαστα τῶν προειρημένων σκοπέειν καὶ βασανίζειν, ἐγὼ φράσω σαφέως. ἥτις μὲν πόλις πρὸς τὰ πνεύματα κέεται τὰ θερμά· ταῦτα δ' ἔσται μεταξὺ τῆς τε χειμερινῆς ἀνατολῆς τοῦ ἡλίου καὶ τῶν δυσμέων τῶν χειμερινῶν· καὶ αὐτέῃ ταῦτα τὰ πνεύματά ἐστι ξύννομα, τῶν δὲ ἀπὸ τῶν ἄρκτων πνευμάτων σκέπη· ἐν ταύτῃ τῇ πόλει ἐστὶ τά τε ὕδατα πολλὰ καὶ ὕφαλα, καὶ ἀνάγκη εἶναι μετέωρα, τοῦ μὲν θέρεος θερμὰ, τοῦ δὲ χειμῶνος ψυχρά· τούς τε ἀνθρώπους τὰς κεφαλὰς ὑγρὰς ἔχειν καὶ φλεγματώδεας, τάς τε κοιλίας αὐτέων πυκνὰ ἐκταράσσεσθαι, ἀπὸ τῆς κεφαλῆς τοῦ φλέγματος ἐπικαταῤῥέοντος· τά τε εἴδεα ἐπὶ τὸ πλῆθος αὐτέων ἀτονώτερα εἶναι· ἐσθίειν δ' οὐκ ἀγαθοὺς εἶναι οὐδὲ πίνειν· ὁκόσοι μὲν γὰρ κεφαλὰς ἀσθενέας ἔχουσιν, οὐκ ἂν εἴησαν ἀγαθοὶ πίνειν· ἡ γὰρ κραιπάλη μᾶλλον πιέζει· νουσήματά τε τάδε ἐπιχώρια εἶναι· πρῶτον μὲν τὰς γυναῖκας νοσερὰς καὶ ῥοώδεας εἶναι· ἔπειτα πολλὰς ἀτόκους ὑπὸ νούσου, καὶ οὐ φύσει, ἐκτιτρώσκεσθαι τε πυκνά· τοῖσί τε παιδίοισιν ἐπιπίπτειν σπασμοὺς καὶ ἄσθματα ἃ νομίζουσι τὸ παιδίον ποιέειν, καὶ ἱερὴν νοῦσον εἶναι· τοῖσι δὲ ἀνδράσι δυσεντερίας καὶ διαῤῥοίας καὶ ἠπιάλους καὶ πυρετοὺς πολυχρονίους χειμερινοὺς καὶ ἐπινυκτίδας πολλὰς καὶ αἱμοῤῥοΐδας ἐν τῇ ἕδρῃ. πλευρίτιδες δὲ καὶ περιπλευμονίαι καὶ καῦσοι καὶ ὁκόσα ὀξέα νουσήματα νομίζονται, οὐκ ἐγγίγνονται πολλά· οὐ γὰρ οἷόν τε, ὅκου ἂν κοιλίαι ὑγραὶ ἔωσι, τὰς νούσους ταύτας ἰσχύειν. ὀφθαλμίαι τε ἐγγίγνονται ὑγραὶ, καὶ οὐ χαλεπαὶ, ὀλιγοχρόνιοι, ἢν μή τι κατάσχῃ νούσημα πάγκοινον ἐκ μεταβολῆς. καὶ ὁκόταν τὰ πεντήκοντα ἔτεα ὑπερβάλλωσι, κατάῤῥοοι ἐπιγενόμενοι ἐκ τοῦ ἐγκεφάλου παραπληκτικοὺς ποιέουσι τοὺς ἀνθρώπους, ὁκόταν ἐξαίφνης ἡλιωθέωσι τὴν κεφαλὴν, ἢ ῥιγώσωσιν. ταῦτα μὲν τὰ νουσήματα αὐτέοισιν ἐπιχώριά ἐστιν· χωρὶς δὲ, ἤν τι πάγκοινον κατάσχῃ νούσημα ἐκ μεταβολῆς τῶν ὡρέων, καὶ τουτέου μετέχουσιν. 3. But how of the aforementioned things should be investigated and explained, I will now declare in a clear manner. A city that is exposed to hot winds (these are between the wintry rising, and the wintry setting of the sun), and to which these are peculiar, but which is sheltered from the north winds; in such a city the waters will be plenteous and saltish, and as they run from an elevated source, they are necessarily hot in summer, and cold in winter; the heads of the inhabitants are of a humid and pituitous constitution, and their bellies subject to frequent disorders, owing to the phlegm running down from the head; the forms of their bodies, for the most part, are rather flabby; they do not eat nor drink much; drinking wine in particular, and more especially if carried to intoxication, is oppressive to them; and the following diseases are peculiar to the district: in the first place, the women are sickly and subject to excessive menstruation; then many are unfruitful from disease, and not from nature, and they have frequent miscarriages; infants are subject to attacks of convulsions and asthma, which they consider to be connected with infancy, and hold to be a sacred disease (epilepsy). The men are subject to attacks of dysentery, diarrhea, hepialus, chronic fevers in winter, of epinyctis, frequently, and of hemorrhoids about the anus. Pleurisies, peripneumonies, ardent fevers, and whatever diseases are reckoned acute, do not often occur, for such diseases are not apt to prevail where the bowels are loose. Ophthalmies occur of a humid character, but not of a serious nature, and of short duration, unless they attack epidemically from the change of the seasons. And when they pass their fiftieth year, defluxions supervening from the brain, render them paralytic when exposed suddently to strokes of the sun, or to cold. These diseases are endemic to them, and, moreover, if any epidemic disease connected with the change of the seasons, prevail, they are also liable to it.
4 ὁκόσαι δ' ἀντικέονται τουτέων πρὸς τὰ πνεύματα τὰ ψυχρὰ, μεταξὺ τῶν δυσμέων τῶν θερινῶν τοῦ ἡλίου καὶ τῆς ἀνατολῆς τῆς θερινῆς, καὶ αὐτέῃσι ταῦτα τὰ πνεύματα ἐπιχώριά ἐστιν, τοῦ δὲ νότου καὶ τῶν θερμῶν πνευμάτων σκέπη, ὧδε ἔχει περὶ τῶν πολίων τουτέων. πρῶτον μὲν τὰ ὕδατα σκληρά τε καὶ ψυχρὰ ὡς ἐπὶ τὸ πλῆθος ἐγγίγνεται. τοὺς δὲ ἀνθρώπους ἐντόνους τε καὶ σκελιφροὺς ἀνάγκη εἶναι, τούς τε πλείους τὰς κοιλίας ἀτεράμνους ἔχειν καὶ σκληρὰς τὰς κάτω, τὰς δὲ ἄνω εὐροωτέρας· χολώδεάς τε μᾶλλον ἢ φλεγματίας εἶναι. τὰς δὲ κεφαλὰς ὑγιηρὰς ἔχουσι καὶ σκληράς· ῥηγματίαι τε εἰσὶν ἐπὶ τὸ πλῆθος. νοσεύματα δὲ αὐτέοισιν ἐπιδημέει ταῦτα, πλευρίτιδές τε πολλαὶ, αἵ τε ὀξεῖαι νομιζόμεναι νοῦσοι. ἀνάγκη δὲ ὧδε ἔχειν, ὁκόταν κοιλίαι σκληραὶ ἔωσιν· ἔμπυοί τε πολλοὶ γίγνονται ἀπὸ πάσης προφάσιος· τουτέου δὲ αἴτιόν ἐστι τοῦ σώματος ἡ ἔντασις, καὶ ἡ σκληρότης τῆς κοιλίης· ἡ γὰρ ξηρότης ῥηγματίας ποιέει εἶναι, καὶ τοῦ ὕδατος ἡ ψυχρότης. ἐδωδοὺς δὲ ἀνάγκη τὰς τοιαύτας φύσιας εἶναι, καὶ οὐ πολυπότας· οὐ γὰρ οἷόν τε ἅμα πολυβόρους τε εἶναι καὶ πολυπότας· ὀφθαλμίας τε γίγνεσθαι μὲν διὰ χρόνου, γίγνεσθαι δὲ σκληρὰς καὶ ἰσχυρὰς, καὶ εὐθέως ῥήγνυσθαι τὰ ὄμματα· αἱμοῤῥοίας δὲ ἐκ τῶν ῥινέων τοῖσι νεωτέροισι τριήκοντα ἐτέων γίγνεσθαι ἰσχυρὰς τοῦ θέρεος· τά τε ἱερὰ νοσεύματα καλεύμενα, ὀλίγα μὲν ταῦτα, ἰσχυρὰ δέ. μακροβίους δὲ τοὺς ἀνθρώπους τουτέους μᾶλλον εἰκὸς εἶναι ἑτέρων· τά τε ἕλκεα οὐ φλεγματώδεα ἐγγίγνεσθαι, οὐδὲ ἀγριοῦσθαι· τά τε ἤθεα ἀγριώτερα ἢ ἡμερώτερα. τοῖσι μὲν ἀνδράσι ταῦτα τὰ νουσήματα ἐπιχώριά ἐστιν· καὶ χωρὶς, ἤν τι πάγκοινον κατάσχῃ ἐκ μεταβολῆς τῶν ὡρέων· τῇσι δὲ γυναιξὶ, πρῶτον μὲν στρυφναὶ πολλαὶ γίγνονται διὰ τὰ ὕδατα ἐόντα σκληρά τε καὶ ἀτέραμνα καὶ ψυχρά· αἱ γὰρ καθάρσιες οὐκ ἐπιγίγνονται τῶν ἐπιμηνίων ἐπιτήδειαι, ἀλλὰ ὀλίγαι καὶ πονηραί. ἔπειτα τίκτουσι χαλεπῶς· ἐκτιτρώσκουσί τε οὐ σφόδρα. ὁκόταν δὲ τέκωσι, τὰ παιδία ἀδύνατοι τρέφειν εἰσίν· τὸ γὰρ γάλα ἀποσβέννυται ἀπὸ τῶν ὑδάτων τῆς σκληρότητος καὶ ἀτεραμνίης· φθίσιές τε γίγνονται συχναὶ ἀπὸ τῶν τοκετῶν· ὑπὸ γὰρ βίης ῥήγματα ἴσχουσι καὶ σπάσματα. τοῖσι δὲ παιδίοισιν ὕδρωπες ἐγγίγνονται ἐν τοῖσιν ὄρχεσιν, ἕως σμικρὰ ᾖ· ἔπειτα, προιούσης τῆς ἡλικίης, ἀφανίζονται· ἡβῶσί τε ὀψὲ ἐν ταύτῃ τῇ πόλει. περὶ μὲν οὖν τῶν θερμῶν πνευμάτων καὶ τῶν ψυχρῶν καὶ τῶν πολίων τουτέων ὧδε ἔχει ὡς προείρηται. 4. But the following is the condition of cities which have the opposite exposure, namely, to cold winds, between the summer settings and the summer risings of the sun, and to which these winds are peculiar, and which are sheltered from the south and the hot breezes. In the first place the waters are, for the most part, hard cold. The men must necessarily be well braced and slender, and they must have the discharges downwards of the alimentary canal hard, and of difficult evacuation, while those upwards are more fluid, and rather bilious than pituitous. Their heads are sound and hard, and they are liable to burstings (of vessels?) for the most part. The diseases which prevail epidemically with them, are pleurisies, and those which are called acute diseases. This must be the case when the bowels are bound; and from any causes, many become affected with suppurations in the lungs, the cause of which is the tension of the body, and hardness of the bowels; for their dryness and the coldness of the water dispose them to ruptures (of vessels?). Such constitutions must be given to excess of eating, but not of drinking; for it is not possible to be gourmands and drunkards at the same time. Ophthalmies, too, at length supervene; these being of a hard and violent nature, and soon ending in rupture of the eyes; persons under thirty years of age are liable to severe bleedings at the nose in summer; attacks of epilepsy are rare but severe. Such people are likely to be rather long-lived; their ulcers are not attended with serious discharges, nor of a malignant character; in disposition they are rather ferocious than gentle. The diseases I have mentioned are peculiar to the men, and besides they are liable to any common complaint which may be prevailing from the changes of the seasons. But the women, in the first place, are of a hard constitution, from the waters being hard, indigestible, and cold; and their menstrual discharges are not regular, but in small quantity, and painful. Then they have difficult parturition, but are not very subject to abortions. And when they do bring forth children, they are unable to nurse them; for the hardness and indigestable nature of the water puts away their milk. Phthisis frequently supervenes after childbirth, for the efforts of it frequently bring on ruptures and strains. Children while still little are subject to dropsies in the testicle, which disappear as they grow older; in such a town they are late in attaining manhood. It is, as I have now stated, with regard to hot and cold winds and cities thus exposed.

5 ὁκόσαι δὲ κέονται πρὸς τὰ πνεύματα τὰ μεταξὺ τῶν θερινῶν ἀνατολέων τοῦ ἡλίου καὶ τῶν χειμερινῶν, καὶ ὁκόσαι τὸ ἐναντίον τουτέων, ὧδε ἔχει περὶ αὐτέων. ὁκόσαι μὲν πρὸς τὰς ἀνατολὰς τοῦ ἡλίου κέονται, ταύτας εἰκὸς εἶναι ὑγιεινοτέρας τῶν πρὸς τὰς ἄρκτους ἐστραμμένων, καὶ τῶν πρὸς τὰ θερμὰ, ἢν καὶ στάδιον τὸ μεταξὺ ᾖ. πρότερον μὲν γὰρ μετριώτερον ἔχει τὸ θερμὸν καὶ τὸ ψυχρόν. ἔπειτα τὰ ὕδατα ὁκόσα πρὸς τὰς τοῦ ἡλίου ἀνατολάς ἐστι, ταῦτα λαμπρά τε εἶναι ἀνάγκη καὶ εὐώδεα καὶ μαλακὰ καὶ ἐρατεινὰ ἐγγίγνεσθαι ἐν ταύτῃ τῇ πόλει. ὁ γὰρ ἥλιος κωλύει ἀνίσχων καὶ καταλάμπων· τὸ γὰρ ἑωθινὸν ἑκάστοτε αὐτὸς ὁ ἠὴρ ἐπέχει ὡς ἐπὶ τὸ πουλύ. τά τε εἴδεα τῶν ἀνθρώπων εὔχροά τε καὶ ἀνθηρὰ ἐστὶ μᾶλλον, ἢν μή τις νοῦσος κωλύῃ. λαμπρόφωνοί τε οἱ ἄνθρωποι, ὀργήν τε καὶ ξύνεσιν βελτίους εἰσὶ τῶν πρὸς βορέην, ᾗπερ καὶ τὰ ἄλλα τὰ ἐμφυόμενα ἀμείνω ἐστίν. ἔοικέ τε μάλιστα ἡ οὕτω κειμένη πόλις ἦρι κατὰ τὴν μετριότητα τοῦ θερμοῦ καὶ τοῦ ψυχροῦ· τά τε νοσεύματα ἐλάσσω μὲν γίγνεται καὶ ἀσθενέστερα, ἔοικε δὲ τοῖσιν ἐν τῇσι πόλεσι γιγνομένοισι νοσεύμασι, τῇσι πρὸς τὰ θερμὰ τὰ πνεύματα ἐστραμμένῃσιν. αἵ τε γυναῖκες αὐτόθι ἀρικύμονές εἰσι σφόδρα, καὶ τίκτουσι ῥηιδίως. περὶ μὲν τουτέων ὧδε ἔχει. 5. Cities that are exposed to winds between the summer and the winter risings of the sun, and those the opposite to them, have the following characters:- Those which lie to the rising of the sun are all likely to be more healthy than such as are turned to the North, or those exposed to the hot winds, even if there should not be a furlong between them. In the first place, both the heat and cold are more moderate. Then such waters as flow to the rising sun, must necessarily be clear, fragrant, soft, and delightful to drink, in such a city. For the sun in rising and shining upon them purifies them, by dispelling the vapors which generally prevail in the morning. The persons of the inhabitants are, for the most part, well colored and blooming, unless some disease counteract. The inhabitants have clear voices, and in temper and intellect are superior to those which are exposed to the north, and all the productions of the country in like manner are better. A city so situated resembles the spring as to moderation between heat and cold, and the diseases are few in number, and of a feeble kind, and bear a resemblance to the diseases which prevail in regions exposed to hot winds. The women there are very prolific, and have easy deliveries. Thus it is with regard to them.

6 ὁκόσαι δὲ πρὸς τὰς δύσιας κέονται, καὶ αὐτέῃσίν ἐστι σκέπη τῶν πνευμάτων τῶν ἀπὸ τῆς ἠοῦς πνεόντων, τά τε θερμὰ πνεύματα παραῤῥέει καὶ τὰ ψυχρὰ ἀπὸ τῶν ἄρκτων, ἀνάγκη ταύτας τὰς πόλιας θέσιν κέεσθαι νοσερωτάτην· πρῶτον μὲν γὰρ τὰ ὕδατα οὐ λαμπρά· αἴτιον δὲ, ὅτι ὁ ἠὴρ τὸ ἑωθινὸν κατέχει ὡς ἐπὶ τὸ πουλὺ, ὅστις τῷ ὕδατι ἐγκαταμιγνύμενος τὸ λαμπρὸν ἀφανίζει· ὁ γὰρ ἥλιος πρὶν ἄνω ἀρθῆναι οὐκ ἐπιλάμπει. τοῦ δὲ θέρεος, ἕωθεν μὲν αὖραι ψυχραὶ πνέουσι, καὶ δρόσοι πίπτουσιν· τὸ δὲ λοιπὸν ἥλιος ἐγκαταδύνων ὥστε μάλιστα διέψει τοὺς ἀνθρώπους, διὸ καὶ ἀχρόους τε εἰκὸς εἶναι καὶ ἀῤῥώστους, τῶν τε νοσευμάτων πάντων μετέχειν μέρος τῶν προειρημένων· οὐδὲν αὐτέοισιν ἀποκέκριται. βαρυφώνους τε εἰκὸς εἶναι καὶ βραγχώδεας διὰ τὸν ἠέρα, ὅτι ἀκάθαρτος ὡς ἐπὶ τὸ πουλὺ αὐτόθι γίγνεται καὶ νοσώδης· οὔτε γὰρ ὑπὸ τῶν βορείων ἐκκρίνεται σφόδρα· οὐ γὰρ προσέχουσι τὰ πνεύματα· ἅ τε προσέχουσιν αὐτέοισι καὶ προσκέονται, ὑδατεινότατά ἐστιν· ἐπεὶ τοιαῦτα τὰ ἐπὶ τῆς ἑσπέρης πνεύματα· ἔοικέ τε μετοπώρῳ μάλιστα ἡ θέσις ἡ τοιαύτη τῆς πόλιος κατὰ τὰς τῆς ἡμέρης μεταβολὰς, ὅτι πουλὺ τὸ μέσον γίγνεται τοῦ τε ἑωθινοῦ καὶ τοῦ πρὸς τὴν δείλην. περὶ μὲν πνευμάτων, ἅ τέ ἐστιν ἐπιτήδεια καὶ ἀνεπιτήδεια, ὧδε ἔχει. 6. But such cities as lie to the west, and which are sheltered from winds blowing from the east, and which the hot winds and the cold winds of the north scarcely touch, must necessarily be in a very unhealthy situation: in the first place the waters are not clear, the cause of which is, because the mist prevails commonly in the morning, and it is mixed up with the water and destroys its clearness, for the sun does not shine upon the water until he be considerably raised above the horizon. And in summer, cold breezes from the east blow and dews fall; and in the latter part of the day the setting sun particularly scorches the inhabitants, and therefore they are pale and enfeebled, and are partly subject to all the aforesaid diseases, but no one is peculiar to them. Their voices are rough and hoarse owing to the state of the air, which in such a situation is generally impure and unwholesome, for they have not the northern winds to purify it; and these winds they have are of a very humid character, such being the nature of the evening breezes. Such a situation of a city bears a great resemblance to autumn as regards the changes of the day, inasmuch as the difference between morning and evening is great. So it is with regard to the winds that are conducive to health, or the contrary.

7 περὶ δὲ τῶν λοιπῶν ὑδάτων βούλομαι διηγήσασθαι, ἅ τέ ἐστι νοσώδεα, καὶ ἃ ὑγιεινότατα, καὶ ὁκόσα ἀφ' ὕδατος κακὰ εἰκὸς γίγνεσθαι, καὶ ὅσα ἀγαθά· πλεῖστον γὰρ μέρος ξυμβάλλεται ἐς τὴν ὑγιείην. ὁκόσα μὲν οὖν ἐστιν ἑλώδεα καὶ στάσιμα καὶ λιμναῖα, ταῦτα ἀνάγκη τοῦ μὲν θέρεος εἶναι θερμὰ καὶ παχέα καὶ ὀδμὴν ἔχοντα, ἅτε οὐκ ἀπόῤῥυτα ἐόντα· ἀλλὰ τοῦ τε ὀμβρίου ὕδατος ἐπιτρεφομένου αἰεὶ νέου, τοῦ τε ἡλίου καίοντος, ἀνάγκη ἄχροά τε εἶναι καὶ πονηρὰ καὶ χολώδεα· τοῦ δὲ χειμῶνος, παγετώδεά τε καὶ ψυχρὰ καὶ τεθολωμένα ὑπό τε χιόνος καὶ παγετῶν, ὥστε φλεγματωδέστατα εἶναι καὶ βραγχωδέστατα· τοῖσι δὲ πίνουσι σπλῆνας μὲν αἰεὶ μεγάλους εἶναι καὶ μεμυωμένους, καὶ τὰς γαστέρας σκληράς τε καὶ λεπτὰς καὶ θερμὰς, τοὺς δὲ ὤμους καὶ τὰς κλη?δας καὶ τὸ πρόσωπον καταλελεπτύσθαι· ἐς γὰρ τὸν σπλῆνα αἱ σάρκες ξυντήκονται, διότι ἰσχνοί εἰσιν· ἐδωδούς τε εἶναι τοὺς τοιουτέους καὶ διψηρούς· τάς τε κοιλίας ξηροτάτας καὶ τὰς ἄνω καὶ τὰς κάτω ἔχειν, ὥστε τῶν φαρμάκων ἰσχυροτέρων δέεσθαι. τοῦτο μὲν τὸ νούσημα αὐτέοισι ξύντροφόν ἐστι καὶ θέρεος καὶ χειμῶνος. πρὸς δὲ τουτέοισιν οἱ ὕδρωπες πλεῖστοί τε γίγνονται καὶ θανατωδέστατοι· τοῦ γὰρ θέρεος δυσεντερίαι τε πολλαὶ ἐμπίπτουσι καὶ διάῤῥοιαι καὶ πυρετοὶ τεταρταῖοι πολυχρόνιοι· ταῦτα δὲ τὰ νοσεύματα μηκυνθέντα τὰς τοιαύτας φύσιας ἐς ὕδρωπας καθίστησι καὶ ἀποκτείνει. ταῦτα μὲν αὐτέοισι τοῦ θέρεος γίγνεται· τοῦ δὲ χειμῶνος, τοῖσι νεωτέροισι μὲν περιπλευμονίαι τε καὶ μανιώδεα νοσεύματα· τοῖσι δὲ πρεσβυτέροισι καῦσοι, διὰ τὴν τῆς κοιλίης σκληρότητα. τῇσι δὲ γυναιξὶν οἰδήματα ἐγγίγνεται καὶ φλέγμα λευκόν· καὶ ἐν γαστρὶ ἴσχουσι μόλις, καὶ τίκτουσι χαλεπῶς· μεγάλα τε τὰ ἔμβρυα καὶ οἰδέοντα· ἔπειτα ἐν τῇσι τροφῇσι φθινώδεά τε καὶ πονηρὰ γίγνεται· ἥ τε κάθαρσις τῇσι γυναιξὶν οὐκ ἐπιγίγνεται χρηστὴ μετὰ τὸν τόκον. τοῖσι δὲ παιδίοισι κῆλαι ἐπιγίγνονται μάλιστα, καὶ τοῖσιν ἀνδράσι κίρσοι καὶ ἕλκεα ἐν τῇσι κνήμῃσιν, ὥστε τὰς τοιαύτας φύσιας οὐχ οἷόν τε μακροβίους εἶναι, ἀλλὰ προγηράσκειν τοῦ χρόνου τοῦ ἱκνευμένου. ἔτι δὲ αἱ γυναῖκες δοκέουσιν ἔχειν ἐν γαστρὶ, καὶ ὁκόταν ὁ τόκος, ᾖ, ἀφανίζεται τὸ πλήρωμα τῆς γαστρός· τοῦτο δὲ γίγνεται ὁκόταν ὑδροπιήσωσιν αἱ ὑστέραι. τὰ μὲν τοιαῦτα ὕδατα νομίζω μοχθηρὰ εἶναι πρὸς ἅπαν χρῆμα· δεύτερα δὲ, ὅσων εἶεν αἱ πηγαὶ ἐκ πετρέων· σκληρὰ γὰρ ἀνάγκη εἶναι· ἢ ἐκ γῆς ὅκου θερμὰ ὕδατά ἐστιν, ἢ σίδηρος γίγνεται, ἢ χαλκὸς, ἢ ἄργυρος, ἢ χρυσὸς, ἢ θεῖον, ἢ στυπτηρίη, ἢ ἄσφαλτον, ἢ νίτρον· ταῦτα γὰρ πάντα ὑπὸ βίης γίγνονται τοῦ θερμοῦ. οὐ τοίνυν οἷόν τε ἐκ τοιαύτης γῆς ὕδατα ἀγαθὰ γίγνεσθαι, ἀλλὰ σκληρά τε καὶ καυσώδεα, διουρέεσθαί τε χαλεπὰ καὶ πρὸς τὴν διαχώρησιν ἐναντία εἶναι. ἄριστα δὲ, ὁκόσα ἐκ μετεώρων χωρίων ῥέει καὶ λόφων γεηρῶν· αὐτά τε γάρ ἐστι γλυκέα καὶ λευκὰ, καὶ τὸν οἶνον φέρειν ὀλίγον οἷά τέ ἐστι· τοῦ δὲ χειμῶνος θερμὰ γίγνεται, τοῦ δὲ θέρεος ψυχρά· οὕτω γὰρ ἂν εἴη ἐκ βαθυτάτων πηγέων. μάλιστα δὲ ἐπαινέειν, ὧν τὰ ῥεύματα πρὸς τὰς ἀνατολὰς τοῦ ἡλίου ἐῤῥώγασι, καὶ μᾶλλον πρὸς τὰς θερινάς· ἀνάγκη γὰρ λαμπρότερα εἶναι καὶ εὐώδεα καὶ κοῦφα. ὁκόσα δέ ἐστιν ἁλυκὰ καὶ ἀτέραμνα καὶ σκληρὰ, ταῦτα μὲν πάντα πίνειν οὐκ ἀγαθά. εἰσὶ δ' ἔνιαι φύσιες καὶ νοσεύματα, ἐς ἃ ἐπιτήδειά ἐστι τὰ τοιαῦτα ὕδατα πινόμενα, περὶ ὧν φράσω αὐτίκα. ἔχει δὲ καὶ περὶ τουτέων ὧδε· ὁκόσων μὲν αἱ πηγαὶ πρὸς τὰς ἀνατολὰς ἔχουσι, ταῦτα μὲν ἄριστα αὐτὰ ἑωυτέων ἐστίν· δεύτερα δὲ τὰ μεταξὺ τῶν θερινῶν ἀνατολέων ἐστὶ τοῦ ἡλίου καὶ δυσίων, καὶ μᾶλλον τὰ πρὸς τὰς ἀνατολάς· τρίτα δὲ τὰ μεταξὺ τῶν δυσμέων τῶν θερινῶν καὶ τῶν χειμερινῶν· φαυλότατα δὲ τὰ πρὸς τὸν νότον καὶ τὰ μεταξὺ χειμερινῆς ἀνατολῆς καὶ δύσιος, καὶ ταῦτα τοῖσι μὲν νοτίοισι πάνυ πονηρὰ, τοῖσι δὲ βορείοισιν ἀμείνω. τουτέοισι δὲ πρέπει ὧδε χρέεσθαι· ὅστις μὲν ὑγιαίνει τε καὶ ἔῤῥωται, μηδὲν διακρίνειν, ἀλλὰ πίνειν αἰεὶ τὸ παρεόν. ὅστις δὲ νούσου εἵνεκα βούλεται τὸ ἐπιτηδειότατον πίνειν, ὧδε ἂν ποιέων μάλιστα τυγχάνοι τῆς ὑγιείης· ὁκόσων μὲν αἱ κοιλίαι σκληραί εἰσι, καὶ ξυγκαίειν ἀγαθαὶ, τουτέοισι μὲν τὰ γλυκύτατα ξυμφέρει καὶ κουφότατα καὶ λαμπρότατα· ὁκόσων δὲ μαλθακαὶ αἱ νηδύες καὶ ὑγραί εἰσι καὶ φλεγματώδεες, τουτέοισι δὲ τὰ σκληρότατα καὶ ἀτεραμνότατα καὶ τὰ ὑφαλικά· οὕτω γὰρ ἂν ξηραίνοιτο μάλιστα· ὁκόσα γὰρ ὕδατά ἐστιν ἕψειν ἄριστα καὶ τακερώτατα, ταῦτα καὶ τὴν κοιλίην διαλύειν εἰκὸς μάλιστα καὶ διατήκειν· ὁκόσα δέ ἐστιν ἀτέραμνα καὶ σκληρὰ καὶ ἥκιστα ἕψειν ἀγαθὰ, ταῦτα δὲ ξυνίστησι μᾶλλον τὰς κοιλίας καὶ ξηραίνει. ἀλλὰ γὰρ ψευσάμενοί εἰσιν οἱ ἄνθρωποι τῶν ἁλμυρῶν ὑδάτων πέρι δι' ἀπειρίην, καὶ ὅτι νομίζεται διαχωρητικά· τὰ δὲ ἐναντιώτατά ἐστι πρὸς τὴν διαχώρησιν· ἀτέραμνα γὰρ καὶ ἀνέψανα, ὥστε καὶ τὴν κοιλίην ὑπ' αὐτέων στύφεσθαι μᾶλλον ἢ τήκεσθαι. καὶ περὶ μὲν τῶν πηγαίων ὑδάτων ὧδε ἔχει. 7. And I wish to give an account of the other kinds of waters, namely, of such as are wholesome and such as are unwholesome, and what bad and what good effects may be derived from water; for water contributes much towards health. Such waters then as are marshy, stagnant, and belong to lakes, are necessarily hot in summer, thick, and have a strong smell, since they have no current; but being constantly supplied by rain-water, and the sun heating them, they necessarily want their proper color, are unwholesome and form bile; in winter, they become congealed, cold, and muddy with the snow and ice, so that they are most apt to engender phlegm, and bring on hoarseness; those who drink them have large and obstructed spleens, their bellies are hard, emaciated, and hot; and their shoulders, collar-bones, and faces are emaciated; for their flesh is melted down and taken up by the spleen, and hence they are slender; such persons then are voracious and thirsty; their bellies are very dry both above and below, so that they require the strongest medicines. This disease is habitual to them both in summer and in winter, and in addition they are very subject to dropsies of a most fatal character; and in summer dysenteries, diarrheas, and protracted quartan fevers frequently seize them, and these diseases when prolonged dispose such constitutions to dropsies, and thus prove fatal. These are the diseases which attack them in summer; but in winter younger persons are liable to pneumonia, and maniacal affections; and older persons to ardent fevers, from hardness of the belly. Women are subject to oedema and leucophlegmasiae; when pregnant they have difficult deliveries; their infants are large and swelled, and then during nursing they become wasted and sickly, and the lochial discharge after parturition does not proceed properly with the women. The children are particularly subject to hernia, and adults to varices and ulcers on their legs, so that persons with such constitutions cannot be long-lived, but before the usual period they fall into a state of premature old age. And further, the women appear to be with child, and when the time of parturition arrives, the fulness of the belly disappears, and this happens from dropsy of the uterus. Such waters then I reckon bad for every purpose. The next to them in badness are those which have their fountains in rocks, so that they must necessarily be hard, or come from a soil which produces thermal waters, such as those having iron, copper, silver, gold, sulphur, alum, bitumen, or nitre (soda) in them; for all these are formed by the force of heat. Good waters cannot proceed from such a soil, but those that are hard and of a heating nature, difficult to pass by urine, and of difficult evacuation by the bowels. The best are those which flow from elevated grounds, and hills of earth; these are sweet, clear, and can bear a little wine; they are hot in summer and cold in winter, for such necessarily must be the waters from deep wells. But those are most to be commended which run to the rising of the sun, and especially to the summer sun; for such are necessarily more clear, fragrant, and light. But all such as are salty, crude, and harsh, are not good for drink. But there are certain constitutions and diseases with which such waters agree when drunk, as I will explain presently. Their characters are as follows: the best are such as have their fountains to the east; the next, those between the summer risings and settings of the sun, and especially those to the risings; and third, those between the summer and winter settings; but the worst are those to the south, and the parts between the winter rising and setting, and those to the south are very bad, but those to the north are better. They are to be used as follows: whoever is in good health and strength need not mind, but may always drink whatever is at hand. But whoever wishes to drink the most suitable for any disease, may accomplish his purpose by attending to the following directions: To persons whose bellies are hard and easily burnt up, the sweetest, the lightest, and the most limpid waters will be proper; but those persons whose bellies are soft, loose, and pituitous, should choose the hardest, those kinds that are most crude, and the saltiest, for thus will they be most readily dried up; for such waters as are adapted for boiling, and are of a very solvent nature, naturally loosen readily and melt down the bowels; but such as are intractable, hard, and by no means proper for boiling, these rather bind and dry up the bowels. People have deceived themselves with regard to salt waters, from inexperience, for they think these waters purgative, whereas they are the very reverse; for such waters are crude, and ill adapted for boiling, so that the belly is more likely to be bound up than loosened by them. And thus it is with regard to the waters of springs.

8 περὶ δὲ τῶν ὀμβρίων, καὶ ὁκόσα ἀπὸ χιόνος, φράσω ὅκως ἔχει. τὰ μὲν οὖν ὄμβρια κουφότατα καὶ γλυκύτατά ἐστι καὶ λεπτότατα καὶ λαμπρότατα· τήν τε γὰρ ἀρχὴν, ὁ ἥλιος ἀνάγει καὶ ἀναρπάζει τοῦ ὕδατος τό τε λεπτότατον καὶ κουφότατον· δῆλον δὲ οἱ ἅλες ποιέουσιν· τὸ μὲν γὰρ ἁλμυρὸν λείπεται αὐτέου ὑπὸ πάχεος καὶ βάρεος, καὶ γίγνεται ἅλες· τὸ δὲ λεπτότατον ὁ ἥλιος ἀναρπάζει ὑπὸ κουφότητος· ἀνάγει δὲ τὸ τοιοῦτο οὐκ ἀπὸ τῶν ὑδάτων μοῦνον τῶν λιμναίων, ἀλλὰ καὶ ἀπὸ τῆς θαλάσσης, καὶ ἐξ ἁπάντων ἐν ὁκόσοισιν ὑγρόν τέ ἐστιν· ἔνεστι δὲ ἐν παντὶ χρήματι· καὶ ἐξ αὐτέων τῶν ἀνθρώπων ἄγει τὸ λεπτότατον τῆς ἰκμάδος καὶ κουφότατον. τεκμήριον δὲ μέγιστον, ὅταν ἄνθρωπος ἐν ἡλίῳ βαδίζῃ, ἢ καθίζῃ ἱμάτιον ἔχων· ὁκόσα μὲν τοῦ χρωτὸς ὁ ἥλιος ἐφορᾷ, οὐχ ἱδρῴη ἄν· ὁ γὰρ ἥλιος ἀναρπάζει τὸ προφαινόμενον τοῦ ἱδρῶτος· ὁκόσα δὲ ὑπὸ τοῦ ἱματίου ἐσκέπασται, ἢ ὑπ' ἄλλου του, ἱδροῖ· ἐξάγεται μὲν γὰρ ὑπὸ τοῦ ἡλίου καὶ βιάζεται· σώζεται δὲ ὑπὸ τῆς σκέπης, ὥστε μὴ ἀφανίζεσθαι ὑπὸ τοῦ ἡλίου· ὁκόταν δὲ ἐς σκιὴν ἀφίκηται, ἅπαν τὸ σῶμα ὁμοίως διιεῖ· οὐ γὰρ ἔτι ὁ ἥλιος ἐπιλάμπει. διὰ ταῦτα δὲ καὶ σήπεται τῶν ὑδάτων τάχιστα ταῦτα καὶ ὀδμὴν ἴσχει πονηρὴν τὸ ὄμβριον, ὅτι ἀπὸ πλείστων ξυνῆκται καὶ ξυμμέμικται, ὥστε σήπεσθαι τάχιστα. ἔτι δὲ πρὸς τουτέοισιν, ἐπειδὰν ἁρπασθῇ καὶ μετεωρισθῇ περιφερόμενον καὶ καταμεμιγμένον ἐς τὸν ἠέρα, τὸ μὲν θολερὸν αὐτέου καὶ νυκτοειδὲς ἐκκρίνεται καὶ ἐξίσταται καὶ γίγνεται ἠὴρ καὶ ὀμίχλη· τὸ δὲ λεπτότατον καὶ κουφότατον αὐτέου λείπεται, καὶ γλυκαίνεται ὑπὸ τοῦ ἡλίου καιόμενόν τε καὶ ἑψόμενον· γίγνεται δὲ καὶ τἄλλα πάντα τὰ ἑψόμενα αἰεὶ γλυκέα. ἕως μὲν οὖν διεσκεδασμένον ᾖ καὶ μή πω ξυνεστήκῃ, φέρεται μετέωρον. ὁκόταν δέ κου ἀθροισθῇ καὶ ξυστραφῇ ἐς τὸ αὐτὸ ὑπὸ ἀνέμων ἀλλήλοισιν ἐναντιωθέντων ἐξαίφνης, τότε καταῤῥήγνυται ᾗ ἂν τύχῃ πλεῖστον ξυστραφέν. τότε γὰρ ἐοικὸς τοῦτο μᾶλλον γίγνεσθαι, ὁκόταν τὰ νέφεα, μὴ ὑπὸ ἀνέμου στάσιν ἔχοντος ὡρμημένα ἐόντα καὶ χωρέοντα, ἐξαίφνης ἀντικόψῃ πνεῦμα ἐναντίον καὶ ἕτερα νέφεα. ἐνταῦθα μὲν πρῶτον αὐτέου ξυστρέφεται· τὰ δὲ ὄπισθεν ἐπιφέρεταί τε καὶ οὕτω παχύνεται, καὶ μελαίνεται, καὶ ξυστρέφεται ἐς τὸ αὐτὸ, καὶ ὑπὸ βάρεος καταῤῥήγνυται, καὶ ὄμβροι γίγνονται. ταῦτα μέν ἐστιν ἄριστα κατὰ τὸ εἰκός· δέεται δὲ ἀφέψεσθαι, καὶ ἀποσήπεσθαι· εἰ δὲ μὴ, ὀδμὴν ἴσχει πονηρὴν, καὶ βράγχος καὶ βαρυφωνίη τοῖσι πίνουσι προσίσταται. τὰ δὲ ἀπὸ χιόνος καὶ κρυστάλλων πονηρὰ πάντα· ὁκόταν γὰρ ἅπαξ παγῇ, οὐκ ἔτι ἐς τὴν ἀρχαίην φύσιν καθίσταται, ἀλλὰ τὸ μὲν αὐτέου λαμπρὸν καὶ κοῦφον καὶ γλυκὺ ἐκκρίνεται καὶ ἀφανίζεται, τὸ δὲ θολωδέστατον καὶ σταθμωδέστατον λείπεται. γνοίης δ' ἂν ὧδε· εἰ γὰρ βούλει, ὅταν ᾖ χειμὼν, ἐς ἀγγεῖον μέτρῳ ἐγχέας ὕδωρ, θεῖναι ἐς τὴν αἰθρίην, ἵνα πήξεται μάλιστα, ἔπειτα τῇ ὑστεραίῃ ἐσενεγκὼν ἐς ἀλέην, ὅκου χαλάσει μάλιστα ὁ παγετὸς, ὁκόταν δὲ λυθῇ, ἀναμετρέειν τὸ ὕδωρ, εὑρήσεις ἔλασσον συχνῷ. τοῦτο τεκμήριον, ὅτι ὑπὸ τῆς πήξιος ἀφανίζεται καὶ ἀναξηραίνεται τὸ κουφότατον καὶ λεπτότατον, οὐ τὸ βαρύτατον καὶ παχύτατον· οὐ γὰρ ἂν δύναιτο. ταύτῃ οὖν νομίζω πονηρότατα ταῦτα τὰ ὕδατα εἶναι τὰ ἀπὸ χιόνος καὶ κρυστάλλου, καὶ τὰ τουτέοισιν ἑπόμενα, πρὸς ἅπαντα χρήματα. περὶ μὲν οὖν ὀμβρίων ὑδάτων καὶ τῶν ἀπὸ χιόνος καὶ κρυστάλλων οὕτως ἔχει. 8. I will now tell how it is with respect to rain-water, and water from snow. Rain waters, then, are the lightest, the sweetest, the thinnest, and the clearest; for originally the sun raises and attracts the thinnest and lightest part of the water, as is obvious from the nature of salts; for the saltish part is left behind owing to its thickness and weight, and forms salts; but the sun attracts the thinnest part, owing to its lightness, and he abstracts this not only from the lakes, but also from the sea, and from all things which contain humidity, and there is humidity in everything; and from man himself the sun draws off the thinnest and lightest part of the juices. As a strong proof of this, when a man walks in the sun, or sits down having a garment on, whatever parts of the body the sun shines upon do not sweat, for the sun carries off whatever sweat makes its appearance; but those parts which are covered by the garment, or anything else, sweat, for the particles of sweat are drawn and forced out by the sun, and are preserved by the cover so as not to be dissipated by the sun; but when the person comes into the shade the whole body equally perspires, because the sun no longer shines upon it. Wherefore, of all kinds of water, these spoil the soonest; and rain water has a bad spot smell, because its particles are collected and mixed together from most objects, so as to spoil the soonest. And in addition to this, when attracted and raised up, being carried about and mixed with the air, whatever part of it is turbid and darkish is separated and removed from the other, and becomes cloud and mist, but the most attenuated and lightest part is left, and becomes sweet, being heated and concocted by the sun, for all other things when concocted become sweet. While dissipated then and not in a state of consistence it is carried aloft. But when collected and condensed by contrary winds, it falls down wherever it happens to be most condensed. For this is likely to happen when the clouds being carried along and moving with a wind which does not allow them to rest, suddenly encounters another wind and other clouds from the opposite direction: there it is first condensed, and what is behind is carried up to the spot, and thus it thickens, blackens, and is conglomerated, and by its weight it falls down and becomes rain. Such, to all appearance, are the best of waters, but they require to be boiled and strained; for otherwise they have a bad smell, and occasion hoarseness and thickness of the voice to those who drink them. Those from snow and ice are all bad, for when once congealed, they never again recover their former nature; for whatever is clear, light, and sweet in them, is separated and disappears; but the most turbid and weightiest part is left behind. You may ascertain this in the following manner: If in winter you will pour water by measure into a vessel and expose it to the open air until it is all frozen, and then on the following day bring it into a warm situation where the ice will thaw, if you will measure the water again when dissolved you will find it much less in quantity. This is a proof that the lightest and thinnest part is dissipated and dried up by the congelation, and not the heaviest and thickest, for that is impossible: wherefore I hold that waters from snow and ice, and those allied to them, are the worst of any for all purposes whatever. Such are the characters of rain-water, and those from ice and snow.

9 λιθιῶσι δὲ μάλιστα ἄνθρωποι, καὶ ὑπὸ νεφριτίδων καὶ στραγγουρίης ἁλίσκονται καὶ ἰσχιάδων, καὶ κῆλαι γίγνονται, ὅκου ὕδατα πίνουσι παντοδαπώτατα καὶ ἀπὸ ποταμῶν μεγάλων, ἐς οὓς ποταμοὶ ἕτεροι ἐμβάλλουσι, καὶ ἀπὸ λίμνης, ἐς ἣν ῥεύματα πολλὰ καὶ παντοδαπὰ ἀφικνεῦνται, καὶ ὁκόσοι ὕδασιν ἐπακτοῖσι χρέονται διὰ μακροῦ ἀγομένοισι, καὶ μὴ ἐκ βραχέος. οὐ γὰρ οἷόν τε ἕτερον ἑτέρῳ ἐοικέναι ὕδωρ, ἀλλὰ τὰ μὲν γλυκέα εἶναι, τὰ δὲ ἁλυκά τε καὶ στυπτηριώδεα, τὰ δὲ ἀπὸ θερμῶν ῥέειν· ξυμμισγόμενα δὲ ταῦτα ἐς ταὐτὸν ἀλλήλοισι στασιάζει, καὶ κρατέει αἰεὶ τὸ ἰσχυρότατον· ἰσχύει δὲ οὐκ αἰεὶ τὠυτὸ, ἀλλ' ἄλλοτε ἄλλο κατὰ τὰ πνεύματα· τῷ μὲν γὰρ βορέης τὴν ἰσχὺν παρέχεται, τῷ δὲ ὁ νότος, καὶ τῶν λοιπῶν πέρι ὠυτὸς λόγος. ὑφίστασθαι οὖν τοῖσι τοιουτέοισιν ἀνάγκη ἐν τοῖσιν ἀγγείοισιν ἰλὺν καὶ ψάμμον· καὶ ἀπὸ τουτέων πινευμένων τὰ νουσήματα γίγνεται τὰ προειρημένα· ὅτι δὲ οὐχ ἅπασιν, ἑξῆς φράσω. ὁκόσων μὲν ἥ τε κοιλίη εὔροός τε καὶ ὑγιηρής ἐστι, καὶ ἡ κύστις μὴ πυρετώδης, μηδὲ ὁ στόμαχος τῆς κύστιος ξυμπέφρακται λίην, οὗτοι μὲν διουρεῦσι ῥηιδίως, καὶ ἐν τῇ κύστει οὐδὲν ξυστρέφεται· ὁκόσων δὲ ἂν ἡ κοιλίη πυρετώδης ᾖ, ἀνάγκη καὶ τὴν κύστιν τὠυτὸ πάσχειν· ὁκόταν γὰρ θερμανθῇ μᾶλλον τῆς φύσιος, ἐφλέγμηνεν αὐτέης ὁ στόμαχος· ὁκόταν δὲ ταῦτα πάθῃ, τὸ οὖρον οὐκ ἀφίησιν, ἀλλ' ἐν ἑωυτέῳ ξυνέψει καὶ ξυγκαίει. καὶ τὸ μὲν λεπτότατον αὐτέου ἀποκρίνεται καὶ τὸ καθαρώτατον διιεῖ καὶ ἐξουρέεται, τὸ δὲ παχύτατον καὶ θολωδέστατον ξυστρέφεται καὶ ξυμπήγνυται· τὸ μὲν πρῶτον σμικρὸν, ἔπειτα μεῖζον γίγνεται· κυλινδεύμενον γὰρ ὑπὸ τοῦ οὔρου, ὅ τι ἂν ξυνίστηται παχὺ, ξυναρμόζει πρὸς ἑωυτό· καὶ οὕτως αὔξεταί τε καὶ πωροῦται. καὶ ὁκόταν οὐρέῃ, πρὸς τὸν στόμαχον τῆς κύστιος προσπίπτει ὑπὸ τοῦ οὔρου βιαζόμενον, καὶ κωλύει οὐρέειν, καὶ ὀδύνην παρέχει ἰσχυρήν· ὥστε τὰ αἰδοῖα τρίβουσι καὶ ἕλκουσι τὰ παιδία τὰ λιθιῶντα· δοκέει γὰρ αὐτέοισι τὸ αἴτιον ἐνταῦθα εἶναι τῆς οὐρήσιος. τεκμήριον δὲ, ὅτι οὕτως ἔχει· τὸ γὰρ οὖρον λαμπρότατον οὐρέουσιν οἱ λιθιῶντες, ὅτι τὸ παχύτατον καὶ θολωδέστατον αὐτέου μένει καὶ ξυστρέφεται· τὰ μὲν πλεῖστα οὕτω λιθιᾷ. γίγνεται δὲ παισὶ καὶ ἀπὸ τοῦ γάλακτος, ἢν μὴ ὑγιηρὸν ᾖ, ἀλλὰ θερμόν τε λίην καὶ χολῶδες· τὴν γὰρ κοιλίην διαθερμαίνει καὶ τὴν κύστιν, ὥστε τὸ οὖρον ξυγκαιόμενον ταῦτα πάσχειν. καὶ φημὶ ἄμεινον εἶναι τοῖσι παιδίοισι τὸν οἶνον ὡς ὑδαρέστατον διδόναι· ἧσσον γὰρ τὰς φλέβας ξυγκαίει καὶ ξυναυαίνει. τοῖσι δὲ θήλεσι λίθοι οὐ γίγνονται ὁμοίως· ὁ γὰρ οὐρητὴρ βραχύς ἐστιν ὁ τῆς κύστιος καὶ εὐρὺς, ὥστε βιάζεσθαι τὸ οὖρον ῥηιδίως· οὔτε γὰρ τῇ χειρὶ τρίβει τὸ αἰδοῖον ὥσπερ τὸ ἄρσεν, οὔτε ἅπτεται τοῦ οὐρητῆρος· ἐς γὰρ τὰ αἰδοῖα ξυντέτρηνται (οἱ δὲ ἄνδρες οὐκ εὐθὺ τέτρηνται, καὶ διότι οἱ οὐρητῆρες εἰσιν οὐκ εὐρέες)· καὶ πίνουσι πλεῖον ἢ οἱ παῖδες. περὶ μὲν οὖν τουτέων ὧδε ἔχει, ἢ ὅτι τουτέων ἐγγύτατα. 9. Men become affected with the stone, and are seized with diseases of the kidneys, strangury, sciatica, and become ruptured, when they drink all sorts of waters, and those from great rivers into which other rivulets run, or from a lake into which many streams of all sorts flow, and such as are brought from a considerable distance. For it is impossible that such waters can resemble one another, but one kind is sweet, another saltish and aluminous, and some flow from thermal springs; and these being all mixed up together disagree, and the strongest part always prevails; but the same kind is not always the strongest, but sometimes one and sometimes another, according to the winds, for the north wind imparts strength to this water, and the south to that, and so also with regard to the others. There must be deposits of mud and sand in the vessels from such waters, and the aforesaid diseases must be engendered by them when drunk, but why not to all I will now explain. When the bowels are loose and in a healthy state, and when the bladder is not hot, nor the neck of the bladder very contracted, all such persons pass water freely, and no concretion forms in the bladder; but those in whom the belly is hot, the bladder must be in the same condition; and when preternaturally heated, its neck becomes inflamed; and when these things happen, the bladder does not expel the urine, but raises its heat excessively. And the thinnest part of it is secreted, and the purest part is passed off in the form of urine, but the thickest and most turbid part is condensed and concreted, at first in small quantity, but afterwards in greater; for being rolled about in the urine, whatever is of a thick consistence it assimilates to itself, and thus it increases and becomes indurated. And when such persons make water, the stone forced down by the urine falls into the neck of the bladder and stops the urine, and occasions intense pain; so that calculous children rub their privy parts and tear at them, as supposing that the obstruction to the urine is situated there. As a proof that it is as I say, persons affected with calculus have very limpid urine, because the thickest and foulest part remains and is concreted. Thus it generally is in cases of calculus. It forms also in children from milk, when it is not wholesome, but very hot and bilious, for it heats the bowels and bladder, so that the urine being also heated undergoes the same change. And I hold that it is better to give children only the most diluted wine, for such will least burn up and dry the veins. Calculi do not form so readily in women, for in them the urethra is short and wide, so that in them the urine is easily expelled; neither do they rub the pudendum with their hands, nor handle the passage like males; for the urethra in women opens direct into the pudendum, which is not the case with men, neither in them is the urethra so wide, and they drink more than children do. Thus, or nearly so, is it with regard to them.

10 περὶ δὲ ἐτέων ὧδε ἄν τις ἐνθυμεύμενος διαγιγνώσκοι ὁκοῖόν τι μέλλει ἔσεσθαι τὸ ἔτος, εἴτε νοσερὸν, εἴτε ὑγιηρόν. ἤν μὲν γὰρ κατὰ λόγον γένηται τὰ σημεῖα ἐπὶ τοῖσι ἄστροισι δύνουσί τε καὶ ἐπιτέλλουσιν, ἔν τε τῷ μετοπώρῳ ὕδατα γένηται, καὶ ὁ χειμὼν μέτριος, καὶ μήτε λίην εὔδιος, μήτε ὑπερβάλλων τὸν καιρὸν τῷ ψύχει, ἔν τε τῷ ἦρι ὕδατα γένηται ὡραῖα, καὶ ἐν τῷ θέρει, οὕτω τὸ ἔτος ὑγιεινότατον εἰκὸς εἶναι. ἤν δὲ ὁ μὲν χειμὼν αὐχμηρὸς καὶ βόρειος γένηται, τὸ δὲ ἦρ ἔπομβρον καὶ νότιον, ἀνάγκη τὸ θέρος πυρετῶδες γίγνεσθαι καὶ ὀφθαλμίας καὶ δυσεντερίας ἐμποιέειν. ὁκόταν γὰρ τὸ πνῖγος ἐπιγένηται ἐξαίφνης, τῆς τε γῆς ὑγρῆς ἐούσης ὑπὸ τῶν ὄμβρων τῶν ἐαρινῶν καὶ ὑπὸ τοῦ νότου, ἀνάγκη διπλόον τὸ καῦμα εἶναι ὑπό τε τῆς γῆς διαβρόχου ἐούσης καὶ θερμῆς καὶ ὑπὸ τοῦ ἡλίου καίοντος, τῶν τε κοιλιῶν μὴ ξυνεστηκυιῶν τοῖσιν ἀνθρώποισι, μήτε τοῦ ἐγκεφάλου ἀνεξηρασμένου· οὐ γὰρ οἷόν τε, τοῦ ἦρος τοιουτέου ἐόντος, μὴ οὐ πλαδᾷν τὸ σῶμα καὶ τὴν σάρκα· ὥστε τοὺς πυρετοὺς ἐπιπίπτειν ὀξυτάτους ἅπασι, μάλιστα δὲ τοῖσι φλεγματίῃσιν. καὶ δυσεντερίας εἰκός ἐστι γίγνεσθαι καὶ τῇσι γυναιξὶ καὶ τοῖσιν εἴδεσι τοῖσιν ὑγροτάτοισιν. καὶ ἢν μὲν ἐπὶ κυνὸς ἐπιτολῇ ὕδωρ ἐπιγένηται καὶ χειμὼν, καὶ οἱ ἐτησίαι πνεύσωσιν, ἐλπὶς παύσασθαι, καὶ τὸ μετόπωρον ὑγιηρὸν γενέσθαι· ἢν δὲ μὴ, κίνδυνος θανάτους τε γενέσθαι τοῖσι παιδίοισι καὶ τῇσι γυναιξὶ, τοῖσι δὲ πρεσβύτῃσιν ἥκιστα, τούς τε περιγενομένους ἐς τεταρταίους ἀποτελευτᾷν, καὶ ἐκ τῶν τεταρταίων ἐς ὕδρωπας· ἢν δ' ὁ χειμὼν νότιος γένηται καὶ ἔπομβρος καὶ εὔδιος, τὸ δὲ ἦρ βόρειόν τε καὶ αὐχμηρὸν καὶ χειμέριον, πρῶτον μὲν τὰς γυναῖκας, ὁκόσαι ἂν τύχωσιν ἐν γαστρὶ ἔχουσαι, καὶ ὁ τόκος αὐτέῃσιν ᾖ πρὸς τῷ ἦρι, ἐκτιτρώσκεσθαι· ὁκόσαι δ' ἂν καὶ τέκωσιν, ἀκρατέα τὰ παιδία τίκτειν καὶ νοσώδεα, ὥστε ἢ αὐτίκα ἀπόλλυσθαι, ἢ ζῶσι λεπτά τε ἐόντα καὶ ἀσθενέα καὶ νοσώδεα. ταῦτα μὲν τῇσι γυναιξίν. τοῖσι δὲ λοιποῖσι δυσεντερίας, καὶ ὀφθαλμίας ξηράς· καὶ ἐνίοισι κατάῤῥους ἀπὸ τῆς κεφαλῆς ἐπὶ τὸν πλεύμονα. τοῖσι μὲν οὖν φλεγματίῃσι τὰς δυσεντερίας εἰκὸς γίγνεσθαι, καὶ τῇσι γυναιξὶ, φλέγματος ἐπικαταῤῥυέντος ἀπὸ τοῦ ἐγκεφάλου, διὰ τὴν ὑγρότητα τῆς φύσιος· τοῖσι δὲ χολώδεσιν ὀφθαλμίας ξηρὰς, διὰ τὴν θερμότητα καὶ ξηρότητα τῆς σαρκός· τοῖσι δὲ πρεσβύτῃσι κατάῤῥους, διὰ τὴν ἀραιότητα καὶ τὴν ἔκτηξιν τῶν φλεβῶν, ὥστε ἐξαίφνης τοὺς μὲν ἀπόλλυσθαι, τοὺς δὲ παραπλήκτους γίγνεσθαι τὰ δεξιὰ ἢ τὰ ἀριστερά. ὁκόταν γὰρ, τοῦ χειμῶνος ἐόντος νοτίου, καὶ θερμοῦ τοῦ σώματος, μὴ ξυνίστηται αἷμα μηδὲ φλέβες, τοῦ ἦρος ἐπιγενομένου βορείου καὶ αὐχμηροῦ καὶ ψυχροῦ, ὁ ἐγκέφαλος, ὁπηνίκα αὐτὸν ἔδει ἅμα καὶ τῷ ἦρι διαλύεσθαι καὶ καθαίρεσθαι ὑπό τε κορύζης καὶ βράγχων, τηνικαῦτα πήγνυταί τε καὶ ξυνίσταται, ὥστε ἐξαίφνης τοῦ θέρεος ἐπιγενομένου καὶ τοῦ καύματος, καὶ τῆς μεταβολῆς ἐπιγενομένης, ταῦτα τὰ νοσεύματα ἐπιπίπτειν. καὶ ὁκόσαι μὲν τῶν πολίων κέονταί γε καλῶς τοῦ ἡλίου καὶ τῶν πνευμάτων, ὕδασί τε χρέονται ἀγαθοῖσιν, αὗται μὲν ἧσσον αἰσθάνονται τῶν τοιουτέων μεταβολέων· ὁκόσαι δὲ ὕδασί τε ἑλείοισι χρέονται καὶ λιμνώδεσι, κέονταί τε μὴ καλῶς τῶν πνευμάτων καὶ τοῦ ἡλίου, αὗται δὲ μᾶλλον. κἢν μὲν τὸ θέρος αὐχμηρὸν γένηται, θᾶσσον παύονται αἱ νοῦσοι· ἢν δὲ ἔπομβρον, πολυχρόνιοι γίγνονται· καὶ φαγεδαίνας κίνδυνος ἐγγίγνεσθαι ἀπὸ πάσης προφάσιος, ἢν ἕλκος ἐγγένηται· καὶ λειεντερίαι καὶ ὕδρωπες τελευτῶσι τοῖσι νοσεύμασιν ἐπιγίγνονται· οὐ γὰρ ἀποξηραίνονται αἱ κοιλίαι ῥηιδίως. ἤν δὲ τὸ θέρος ἔπομβρον γένηται καὶ νότιον καὶ τὸ μετόπωρον, χειμῶνα ἀνάγκη νοσερὸν εἶναι, καὶ τοῖσι φλεγματίῃσι καὶ τοῖσι γεραιτέροισι τεσσαράκοντα ἐτέων καύσους γίγνεσθαι εἰκὸς, τοῖσι δὲ χολώδεσι πλευρίτιδας καὶ περιπλευμονίας. ἤν δὲ τὸ θέρος αὐχμηρὸν γένηται καὶ βόρειον, τὸ δὲ μετόπωρον ἔπομβρον καὶ νότιον, κεφαλαλγίας ἐς τὸν χειμῶνα καὶ σφακέλους τοῦ ἐγκεφάλου εἰκὸς γίγνεσθαι, καὶ προσέτι βράγχους καὶ κορύζας καὶ βῆχας, ἐνίοισι δὲ καὶ φθίσιας. ἤν δὲ βόρειόν τε ᾖ καὶ ἄνυδρον, καὶ μήτε ὑπὸ κύνα ἔπομβρον, μήτε ἐπὶ τῷ ἀρκτούρῳ, τοῖσι μὲν φλεγματίῃσι φύσει ξυμφέρει μάλιστα, καὶ τοῖσιν ὑγροῖσι τὰς φύσιας, καὶ τῇσι γυναιξίν· τοῖσι δὲ χολώδεσι τοῦτο πολεμιώτατον γίγνεται· λίην γὰρ ἀναξηραίνονται, καὶ ὀφθαλμίαι αὐτέοισιν ἐπιγίγνονται ξηραὶ, καὶ πυρετοὶ ὀξέες καὶ πολυχρόνιοι, ἐνίοισι δὲ καὶ μελαγχολίαι. τῆς γὰρ χολῆς τὸ μὲν ὑγρότατον καὶ ὑδαρέστατον ἀναλοῦται, τὸ δὲ παχύτατον καὶ δριμύτατον λείπεται, καὶ τοῦ αἵματος κατὰ τὸν αὐτὸν λόγον, ἀφ' ὧν ταῦτα τὰ νοσεύματα αὐτέοισι γίγνεται. τοῖσι δὲ φλεγματίῃσι πάντα ταῦτα ἀρωγά ἐστιν· ἀποξηραίνονται γὰρ, καὶ ἐς τὸν χειμῶνα ἀφικνεόνται, οὐ πλαδῶντες, ἀλλὰ ἀνεξηρασμένοι. 10. And respecting the seasons, one may judge whether the year will prove sickly or healthy from the following observations:- If the appearances connected with the rising and setting stars be as they should be; if there be rains in autumn; if the winter be mild, neither very tepid nor unseasonably cold, and if in spring the rains be seasonable, and so also in summer, the year is likely to prove healthy. But if the winter be dry and northerly, and the spring showery and southerly, the summer will necessarily be of a febrile character, and give rise to ophthalmies and dysenteries. For when suffocating heat sets in all of a sudden, while the earth is moistened by the vernal showers, and by the south wind, the heat is necessarily doubled from the earth, which is thus soaked by rain and heated by a burning sun, while, at the same time, men's bellies are not in an orderly state, nor the brain properly dried; for it is impossible, after such a spring, but that the body and its flesh must be loaded with humors, so that very acute fevers will attack all, but especially those of a phlegmatic constitution. Dysenteries are also likely to occur to women and those of a very humid temperament. And if at the rising of the Dogstar rain and wintery storms supervene, and if the etesian winds blow, there is reason to hope that these diseases will cease, and that the autumn will be healthy; but if not, it is likely to be a fatal season to children and women, but least of all to old men; and that convalescents will pass into quartans, and from quartans into dropsies; but if the winter be southerly, showery and mild, but the spring northerly, dry, and of a wintry character, in the first place women who happen to be with child, and whose accouchement should take place in spring, are apt to miscarry; and such as bring forth, have feeble and sickly children, so that they either die presently or are tender, feeble, and sickly, if they live. Such is the case with the women. The others are subject to dysenteries and dry ophthalmies, and some have catarrhs beginning in the head and descending to the lungs. Men of a phlegmatic temperament are likely to have dysenteries; and women, also, from the humidity of their nature, the phlegm descending downwards from the brain; those who are bilious, too, have dry ophthalmies from the heat and dryness of their flesh; the aged, too, have catarrhs from their flabbiness and melting of the veins, so that some of them die suddenly and some become paralytic on the right side or the left. For when, the winter being southerly and the body hot, the blood and veins are not properly constringed; a spring that is northerly, dry, and cold, having come on, the brain when it should have been expanded and purged, by the coryza and hoarseness is then constringed and contracted, so that the summer and the heat occurring suddenly, and a change supervening, these diseases fall out. And such cities as lie well to the sun and winds, and use good waters, feel these changes less, but such as use marshy and pooly waters, and lie well both as regards the winds and the sun, these all feel it more. And if the summer be dry, those diseases soon cease, but if rainy, they are protracted; and there is danger of any sore that there is becoming phagedenic from any cause; and lienteries and dropsies supervene at the conclusion of diseases; for the bowels are not readily dried up. And if the summer be rainy and southerly, and next the autumn, the winter must, of necessity, be sickly, and ardent fevers are likely to attack those that are phlegmatic, and more elderly than forty years, and pleurisies and peripneumonies those that are bilious. But if the summer is parched and northerly, but the autumn rainy and southerly, headache and sphacelus of the brain are likely to occur; and in addition hoarseness, coryza, coughs, and in some cases, consumption. But if the season is northerly and without water, there being no rain, neither after the Dogstar nor Arcturus; this state agrees best with those who are naturally phlegmatic, with those who are of a humid temperament, and with women; but it is most inimical to the bilious; for they become much parched up, and ophthalmies of a dry nature supervene, fevers both acute and chronic, and in some cases melancholy; for the most humid and watery part of the bile being consumed, the thickest and most acrid portion is left, and of the blood likewise, when these diseases came upon them. But all these are beneficial to the phlegmatic, for they are thereby dried up, and reach winter not oppressed with humors, but with them dried up.

11 κατὰ ταῦτά τις ἐννοεύμενος καὶ σκοπεύμενος προειδείη ἂν τὰ πλεῖστα τῶν μελλόντων ἔσεσθαι ἀπὸ τῶν μεταβολέων. φυλάσσεσθαι δὲ χρὴ μάλιστα τὰς μεταβολὰς τῶν ὡρέων τὰς μεγίστας, καὶ μήτε φάρμακον διδόναι ἑκόντα, μήτε καίειν ὅ τι ἐς κοιλίην, μήτε τάμνειν, πρὶν παρέλθωσιν ἡμέραι δέκα ἢ καὶ πλείονες· μέγισται δέ εἰσιν αἵδε καὶ ἐπικινδυνόταται, ἡλίου τροπαὶ ἀμφότεραι καὶ μᾶλλον αἱ θεριναί· καὶ ἰσημερίαι νομιζόμεναι εἶναι ἀμφότεραι, μᾶλλον δὲ αἱ μετοπωριναί. δεῖ δὲ καὶ τῶν ἄστρων τὰς ἐπιτολὰς φυλάσσεσθαι, καὶ μάλιστα τοῦ κυνὸς, ἔπειτα ἀρκτούρου, καὶ ἔτι πληιάδων δύσιν· τά τε γὰρ νοσεύματα μάλιστα ἐν ταύτῃσι τῇσιν ἡμέρῃσι κρίνεται· καὶ τὰ μὲν ἀποφθίνει, τὰ δὲ λήγει, τὰ δὲ ἄλλα πάντα μεθίσταται ἐς ἕτερον εἶδος καὶ ἑτέρην κατάστασιν. περὶ μὲν τουτέων οὕτως ἔχει. 11. Whoever studies and observes these things may be able to foresee most of the effects which will result from the changes of the seasons; and one ought to be particularly guarded during the greatest changes of the seasons, and neither willingly give medicines, nor apply the cautery to the belly, nor make incisions there until ten or more days be past. Now, the greatest and most dangerous are the two solstices, and especially the summer, and also the two equinoxes, but especially the autumnal. One ought also to be guarded about the rising of the stars, especially of the Dogstar, then of Arcturus, and then the setting of the Pleiades; for diseases are especially apt to prove critical in those days, and some prove fatal, some pass off, and all others change to another form and another constitution. So it is with regard to them.

12 βούλομαι δὲ περὶ τῆς Ἀσίης καὶ τῆς Εὐρώπης δεῖξαι ὁκόσον διαφέρουσιν ἀλλήλων ἐς τὰ πάντα, καὶ περὶ τῶν ἐθνέων τῆς μορφῆς, ὅτι διαλλάσσει καὶ μηδὲν ἔοικεν ἀλλήλοισιν. περὶ μὲν οὖν ἁπάντων πολὺς ἂν εἴη λόγος, περὶ δὲ τῶν μεγίστων καὶ πλεῖστον διαφερόντων ἐρέω ὥς μοι δοκέει ἔχειν. τὴν Ἀσίην πλεῖστον διαφέρειν φημὶ τῆς Εὐρώπης ἐς τὰς φύσιας τῶν ξυμπάντων, τῶν τε ἐκ τῆς γῆς φυομένων καὶ τῶν ἀνθρώπων· πολὺ γὰρ καλλίονα καὶ μείζονα πάντα γίγνεται ἐν τῇ Ἀσίῃ· ἥ τε χώρη τῆς χώρης ἡμερωτέρη, καὶ τὰ ἤθεα τῶν ἀνθρώπων ἠπιώτερα καὶ εὐοργητότερα. τὸ δὲ αἴτιον τουτέων ἡ κρῆσις τῶν ὡρέων, ὅτι τοῦ ἡλίου ἐν μέσῳ τῶν ἀνατολέων κέεται πρὸς τὴν ἠῶ, τοῦ τε ψυχροῦ ποῤῥωτέρω· τὴν δὲ αὔξησιν καὶ ἡμερότητα παρέχει πλεῖστον ἁπάντων, ὁκόταν μηδὲν ᾖ ἐπικρατέον βιαίως, ἀλλὰ παντὸς ἰσομοιρίη δυναστεύῃ. ἔχει δὲ κατὰ τὴν Ἀσίην οὐ πανταχῆ ὁμοίως, ἀλλ' ὅση μὲν τῆς χώρης ἐν μέσῳ κέεται τοῦ θερμοῦ καὶ τοῦ ψυχροῦ, αὕτη μὲν εὐκαρποτάτη ἐστὶ καὶ εὐδενδροτάτη καὶ εὐδιεστάτη, καὶ ὕδασι καλλίστοισι κέχρηται τοῖσί τε οὐρανίοισι καὶ τοῖσιν ἐκ τῆς γῆς. οὔτε γὰρ ὑπὸ τοῦ θερμοῦ ἐκκέκαυται λίην, οὔτε ὑπὸ αὐχμῶν καὶ ἀνυδρίης ἀναξηραίνεται, οὔτε ὑπὸ ψύχεος βεβιασμένη· ἐπεὶ δὲ καὶ διάβροχός ἐστιν ὑπό τε ὄμβρων πολλῶν καὶ χιόνος, τά τε ὡραῖα αὐτόθι πολλὰ ἐοικὸς γίγνεσθαι, ὁκόσα τε ἀπὸ σπερμάτων, καὶ ὁκόσα αὐτὴ ἡ γῆ ἀναδιδοῖ φυτά· ὧν τοῖσι καρποῖσι χρέονται ἄνθρωποι, ἡμεροῦντες ἐξ ἀγρίων, καὶ ἐς ἐπιτήδειον μεταφυτέοντες· τά τε ἐντρεφόμενα κτήνεα εὐθηνέειν εἰκὸς, καὶ μάλιστα τίκτειν τε πυκνότατα καὶ ἐκτρέφειν κάλλιστα· τούς τε ἀνθρώπους εὐτραφέας εἶναι, καὶ τὰ εἴδεα καλλίστους, καὶ μεγέθεα μεγίστους, καὶ ἥκιστα διαφόρους ἐς τά τε εἴδεα αὐτέων καὶ τὰ μεγέθεα· εἰκός τε τὴν χώρην ταύτην τοῦ ἦρος ἐγγύτατα εἶναι κατὰ τὴν φύσιν καὶ τὴν μετριότητα τῶν ὡρέων. τὸ δὲ ἀνδρεῖον καὶ τὸ ταλαίπωρον καὶ τὸ ἔμπονον καὶ τὸ θυμοειδὲς οὐκ ἂν δύναιτο ἐν τοιαύτῃ φύσει ἐγγίγνεσθαι οὔτε ὁμοφύλου οὔτε ἀλλοφύλου, ἀλλὰ τὴν ἡδονὴν ἀνάγκη κρατέειν ... διότι πολύμορφα γίγνεται τὰ ἐν τοῖσι θηρίοισιν. περὶ μὲν οὖν Αἰγυπτίων καὶ Λιβύων οὕτως ἔχειν μοι δοκέει. 12. I wish to show, respecting Asia and Europe, how, in all respects, they differ from one another, and concerning the figure of the inhabitants, for they are different, and do not at all resemble one another. To treat of all would be a long story, but I will tell you how I think it is with regard to the greatest and most marked differences. I say, then, that Asia differs very much from Europe as to the nature of all things, both With regard to the productions of the earth and the inhabitants, for everything is produced much more beautiful and large in Asia; the country is milder, and the dispositions of the inhabitants also are more gentle and affectionate. The cause of this is the temperature of the seasons, because it lies in the middle of the risings of the sun towards the east, and removed from the cold (and heat), for nothing tends to growth and mildness so much as when the climate has no predominant quality, but a general equality of temperature prevails. It is not everywhere the same with regard to Asia, but such parts of the country as lie intermediate between the heat and the cold, are the best supplied with fruits and trees, and have the most genial climate, and enjoy the purest waters, both celestial and terrestrial. For neither are they much burnt up by the heat, nor dried up by the drought and want of rain, nor do they suffer from the cold; since they are well watered from abundant showers and snow, and the fruits of the season, as might be supposed, grow in abundance, both such as are raised from seed that has been sown, and such plants as the earth produces of its own accord, the fruits of which the inhabitants make use of, training them from their wild state and transplanting them to a suitable soil; the cattle also which are reared there are vigorous, particularly prolific, and bring up young of the fairest description; the inhabitants too, are well fed, most beautiful in shape, of large stature, and differ little from one another either as to figure or size; and the country itself, both as regards its constitution and mildness of the seasons, may be said to bear a close resemblance to the spring. Manly courage, endurance of suffering, laborious enterprise, and high spirit, could not be produced in such a state of things either among the native inhabitants or those of a different country, for there pleasure necessarily reigns. For this reason, also, the forms of wild beasts there are much varied. Thus it is, as I think, with the Egyptians and Libyans.

13 περὶ δὲ τῶν ἐν δεξιῇ τοῦ ἡλίου τῶν ἀνατολέων τῶν θερινῶν μέχρι Μαιώτιδος λίμνης (οὗτος γὰρ ὅρος τῆς Εὐρώπης καὶ τῆς Ἀσίης) ὧδε ἔχει περὶ αὐτέων· τὰ δὲ ἔθνεα ταῦτα ταύτῃ διάφορα αὐτὰ ἑωυτέων μᾶλλόν ἐστι τῶν προδιηγημένων, διὰ τὰς μεταβολὰς τῶν ὡρέων καὶ τῆς χώρης τὴν φύσιν. ἔχει δὲ καὶ κατὰ τὴν γῆν ὁμοίως ἅπερ καὶ κατὰ τοὺς ἄλλους ἀνθρώπους. ὅκου γὰρ αἱ ὧραι μεγίστας μεταβολὰς ποιέονται καὶ πυκνοτάτας, ἐκεῖ καὶ ἡ χώρη ἀγριωτάτη καὶ ἀνωμαλωτάτη ἐστίν· καὶ εὑρήσεις ὄρεά τε πλεῖστα καὶ δασέα, καὶ πεδία, καὶ λειμῶνας ἐόντας· ὅκου δὲ αἱ ὧραι μὴ μέγα ἀλλάσσουσιν, ἐκεῖ ἡ χώρη ὁμαλωτάτη ἐστίν. οὕτω δὲ ἔχει καὶ περὶ τῶν ἀνθρώπων, εἴ τις βούλεται ἐνθυμέεσθαι. εἰσὶ γὰρ φύσιες, αἱ μὲν ὄρεσιν ἐοικυῖαι δενδρώδεσί τε καὶ ἐφύδροισιν, αἱ δὲ λεπτοῖσί τε καὶ ἀνύδροισιν, αἱ δὲ λειμακεστέροισί τε καὶ ἑλώδεσιν, αἱ δὲ πεδίῳ τε καὶ ψιλῇ καὶ ξηρῇ γῇ. αἱ γὰρ ὧραι αἱ μεταλλάσσουσαι τῆς μορφῆς τὴν φύσιν εἰσὶ διάφοροι· ἢν δὲ διάφοροι ἔωσι μετὰ σφέων αὐτέων, διαφοραὶ καὶ πλείονες γίγνονται τοῖσιν εἴδεσιν. 13. But concerning those on the right hand of the summer risings of the sun as far as the Palus Maeotis (for this is the boundary of Europe and Asia), it is with them as follows: the inhabitants there differ far more from one another than those I have treated of above, owing to the differences of the seasons and the nature of the soil. But with regard to the country itself, matters are the same there as among all other men; for where the seasons undergo the greatest and most rapid changes, there the country is the wildest and most unequal; and you will find the greatest variety of mountains, forests, plains, and meadows; but where the seasons do not change much there the country is the most even; and, if one will consider it, so is it also with regard to the inhabitants; for the nature of some is like to a country covered with trees and well watered; of some, to a thin soil deficient in water; of others, to fenny and marshy places; and of some again, to a plain of bare and parched land. For the seasons which modify their natural frame of body are varied, and the greater the varieties of them the greater also will be the differences of their shapes.

14 καὶ ὁκόσα μὲν ὀλίγον διαφέρει τῶν ἐθνέων παραλείψω· ὁκόσα δὲ μεγάλα ἢ φύσει ἢ νόμῳ, ἐρέω περὶ αὐτέων ὡς ἔχει. καὶ πρῶτον περὶ τῶν Μακροκεφάλων. τουτέων γὰρ οὐκ ἔστιν ἄλλο ἔθνος ὁμοίως τὰς κεφαλὰς ἔχον οὐδέν. τὴν μὲν γὰρ ἀρχὴν ὁ νόμος αἰτιώτατος ἐγένετο τοῦ μήκεος τῆς κεφαλῆς, νῦν δὲ καὶ ἡ φύσις ξυμβάλλεται τῷ νόμῳ· τοὺς γὰρ μακροτάτην ἔχοντας τὴν κεφαλὴν γενναιοτάτους ἡγέονται. ἔχει δὲ περὶ νόμου ὧδε· τὸ παιδίον ὁκόταν γένηται τάχιστα, τὴν κεφαλὴν αὐτέου ἔτι ἁπαλὴν ἐοῦσαν, μαλακοῦ ἐόντος, ἀναπλήσσουσι τῇσι χερσὶ, καὶ ἀναγκάζουσιν ἐς τὸ μῆκος αὔξεσθαι, δεσμά τε προσφέροντες καὶ τεχνήματα ἐπιτήδεια, ὑφ' ὧν τὸ μὲν σφαιροειδὲς τῆς κεφαλῆς κακοῦται, τὸ δὲ μῆκος αὔξεται. οὕτω τὴν ἀρχὴν ὁ νόμος κατειργάσατο, ὥστε ὑπὸ βίης τοιαύτην τὴν φύσιν γενέσθαι· τοῦ δὲ χρόνου προιόντος, ἐν φύσει ἐγένετο, ὥστε τὸν νόμον μηκέτι ἀναγκάζειν. ὁ γὰρ γόνος πανταχόθεν ἔρχεται τοῦ σώματος, ἀπό τε τῶν ὑγιηρῶν ὑγιηρὸς, ἀπό τε τῶν νοσερῶν νοσερός. εἰ οὖν γίγνονται ἔκ τε τῶν φαλακρῶν φαλακροὶ, καὶ ἐκ γλαυκῶν γλαυκοὶ, καὶ ἐκ διεστραμμένων στρεβλοὶ, ὡς ἐπὶ τὸ πλῆθος, καὶ περὶ τῆς ἄλλης μορφῆς ὁ αὐτὸς λόγος, τί κωλύει καὶ ἐκ μακροκεφάλου μακροκέφαλον γενέσθαι; Νῦν δὲ ὁμοίως οὐκ ἔτι γίγνονται ὡς πρότερον· ὁ γὰρ νόμος οὐκ ἔτι ἰσχύει διὰ τὴν ὁμιλίην τῶν ἀνθρώπων. περὶ μὲν οὖν τουτέων οὕτω μοι δοκέει. 14. I will pass over the smaller differences among the nations, but will now treat of such as are great either from nature, or custom; and, first, concerning the Macrocephali. There is no other race of men which have heads in the least resembling theirs. At first, usage was the principal cause of the length of their head, but now nature cooperates with usage. They think those the most noble who have the longest heads. It is thus with regard to the usage: immediately after the child is born, and while its head is still tender, they fashion it with their hands, and constrain it to assume a lengthened shape by applying bandages and other suitable contrivances whereby the spherical form of the head is destroyed, and it is made to increase in length. Thus, at first, usage operated, so that this constitution was the result of force: but, in the course of time, it was formed naturally; so that usage had nothing to do with it; for the semen comes from all parts of the body, sound from the sound parts, and unhealthy from the unhealthy parts. If, then, children with bald heads are born to parents with bald heads; and children with blue eyes to parents who have blue eyes; and if the children of parents having distorted eyes squint also for the most part; and if the same may be said of other forms of the body, what is to prevent it from happening that a child with a long head should be produced by a parent having a long head? But now these things do not happen as they did formerly, for the custom no longer prevails owing to their intercourse with other men. Thus it appears to me to be with regard to them.

15 περὶ δὲ τῶν ἐν Φάσει, ἡ χώρη ἐκείνη ἑλώδης ἐστὶ καὶ θερμὴ καὶ ὑδατεινὴ καὶ δασεῖα· ὄμβροι τε αὐτόθι γίγνονται πᾶσαν ὥρην πολλοί τε καὶ ἰσχυροί· ἥ τε δίαιτα τοῖσιν ἀνθρώποισιν ἐν τοῖσιν ἕλεσίν ἐστιν· τά τε οἰκήματα ξύλινα καὶ καλάμινα ἐν τοῖσιν ὕδασι μεμηχανημένα· ὀλίγῃ τε χρέονται βαδίσει κατὰ τὴν πόλιν καὶ τὸ ἐμπόριον, ἀλλὰ μονοξύλοισι διαπλέουσιν ἄνω καὶ κάτω· διώρυγες γὰρ πολλαί εἰσιν. τὰ δὲ ὕδατα θερμὰ καὶ στάσιμα πίνουσιν, ὑπό τε τοῦ ἡλίου σηπόμενα, καὶ ὑπὸ τῶν ὄμβρων ἐπαυξανόμενα. αὐτός τε ὁ Φάσις στασιμώτατος πάντων τῶν ποταμῶν καὶ ῥέων ἠπιώτατα· οἵ τε καρποὶ γιγνόμενοι αὐτόθι πάντες ἀναλδέες εἰσὶ, καὶ τεθηλυσμένοι, καὶ ἀτελέες, ὑπὸ πολυπληθείης τοῦ ὕδατος· διὸ καὶ οὐ πεπαίνονται· ἠήρ τε πουλὺς κατέχει τὴν χώρην ἀπὸ τῶν ὑδάτων. διὰ ταύτας δὴ τὰς προφάσιας τὰ εἴδεα ἀπηλλαγμένα τῶν λοιπῶν ἀνθρώπων ἔχουσιν οἱ Φασιηνοί· τά τε γὰρ μεγέθεα μεγάλοι, τὰ πάχεα δ' ὑπερπαχέες· ἄρθρον τε κατάδηλον οὐδὲν, οὐδὲ φλέψ· τήν τε χροιὴν ὠχρὴν ἔχουσιν, ὥσπερ ὑπὸ ἰκτέρου ἐχόμενοι· φθέγγονταί τε βαρύτατον ἀνθρώπων, τῷ ἠέρι χρεόμενοι οὐ λαμπρῷ, ἀλλὰ χνοώδει τε καὶ διερῷ· πρός τε τὸ ταλαιπωρέειν τὸ σῶμα ἀργότεροι πεφύκασιν· αἵ τε ὧραι οὐ πολὺ μεταλλάσσουσιν, οὔτε πρὸς τὸ πνῖγος, οὔτε πρὸς τὸ ψύχος· τά τε πνεύματα τὰ πολλὰ νότια, πλὴν αὔρης μιῆς ἐπιχωρίης· αὕτη δὲ πνέει ἐνίοτε βίαιος, καὶ χαλεπὴ, καὶ θερμὴ, καὶ Κέγχρονα ὀνομάζουσι τοῦτο τὸ πνεῦμα. ὁ δὲ βορέης οὐ σφόδρα ἀφικνέεται· ὁκόταν δὲ πνέῃ, ἀσθενὴς καὶ βληχρός. περὶ μὲν τῆς φύσιος τῆς διαφορῆς καὶ τῆς μορφῆς τῶν ἐν τῇ Ἀσίῃ καὶ τῇ Εὐρώπῃ οὕτως ἔχει. 15. As to the inhabitants of Phasis, their country is fenny, warm, humid, and wooded; copious and severe rains occur there at all seasons; and the life of the inhabitants is spent among the fens; for their dwellings are constructed of wood and reeds, and are erected amidst the waters; they seldom practice walking either to the city or the market, but sail about, up and down, in canoes constructed out of single trees, for there are many canals there. They drink the hot and stagnant waters, both when rendered putrid by the sun, and when swollen with rains. The Phasis itself is the most stagnant of all rivers, and runs the smoothest; all the fruits which spring there are unwholesome, feeble and imperfect growth, owing to the redundance of water, and on this account they do not ripen, for much vapor from the waters overspreads the country. For these reasons the Phasians have shapes different from those of all other men; for they are large in stature, and of a very gross habit of body, so that not a joint nor vein is visible; in color they are sallow, as if affected with jaundice. Of all men they have the roughest voices, from their breathing an atmosphere which is not clear, but misty and humid; they are naturally rather languid in supporting bodily fatigue. The seasons undergo but little change either as to heat or cold; their winds for the most part are southerly, with the exception of one peculiar to the country, which sometimes blows strong, is violent and hot, and is called by them the wind cenchron. The north wind scarcely reaches them, and when it does blow it is weak and gentle. Thus it is with regard to the different nature and shape of the inhabitants of Asia and Europe.

16 περὶ δὲ τῆς ἀθυμίης τῶν ἀνθρώπων καὶ τῆς ἀνανδρείης, ὅτι ἀπολεμώτεροί εἰσι τῶν Εὐρωπαίων οἱ Ἀσιηνοὶ, καὶ ἡμερώτεροι τὰ ἤθεα, αἱ ὧραι αἴτιαι μάλιστα, οὐ μεγάλας τὰς μεταβολὰς ποιεύμεναι, οὔτε ἐπὶ τὸ θερμὸν, οὔτε ἐπὶ τὸ ψυχρὸν, ἀλλὰ παραπλησίως. οὐ γὰρ γίγνονται ἐκπλήξιες τῆς γνώμης, οὔτε μετάστασις ἰσχυρὴ τοῦ σώματος, ἀφ' ὅτων εἰκὸς τὴν ὀργὴν ἀγριοῦσθαί τε, καὶ τοῦ ἀγνώμονος καὶ θυμοειδέος μετέχειν μᾶλλον ἢ ἐν τῷ αὐτέῳ αἰεὶ ἐόντα. αἱ γὰρ μεταβολαί εἰσι τῶν πάντων, αἵ τε ἐγείρουσαι τὴν γνώμην τῶν ἀνθρώπων, καὶ οὐκ ἐῶσαι ἀτρεμίζειν. διὰ ταύτας ἐμοὶ δοκέει τὰς προφάσιας ἄναλκες εἶναι τὸ γένος τὸ Ἀσιηνόν· καὶ προσέτι διὰ τοὺς νόμους. τῆς γὰρ Ἀσίης τὰ πολλὰ βασιλεύεται. ὅκου δὲ μὴ αὐτοὶ ἑωυτέων εἰσὶ καρτεροὶ ἄνθρωποι μηδὲ αὐτόνομοι, ἀλλὰ δεσπόζονται, οὐ περὶ τουτέου αὐτέοισιν ὁ λόγος ἐστὶν, ὅκως τὰ πολέμια ἀσκήσωσιν, ἀλλ' ὅκως μὴ δόξωσι μάχιμοι εἶναι. οἱ γὰρ κίνδυνοι οὐχ ὅμοιοι εἰσίν· τοὺς μὲν γὰρ στρατεύεσθαι εἰκὸς καὶ ταλαιπωρέειν καὶ ἀποθνήσκειν ἐξ ἀνάγκης ὑπὲρ τῶν δεσποτέων, ἄπο τε παιδίων καὶ γυναικὸς ἐόντας καὶ τῶν λοιπῶν φίλων· καὶ ὁκόσα μὲν ἂν χρηστὰ καὶ ἀνδρεῖα ἐργάσωνται, οἱ δεσπόται ἀπ' αὐτέων αὔξονταί τε καὶ ἐκφύονται· τοὺς δὲ κινδύνους καὶ θανάτους αὐτοὶ καρποῦνται· ἔτι δὲ πρὸς τούτοισι τῶν τοιούτων ἀνθρώπων ἀνάγκη ἐρημοῦσθαι τὴν γῆν ὑπό τε πολεμίων καὶ ἀργίης· ὥστε, καὶ εἴ τις φύσει πέφυκεν ἀνδρεῖος καὶ εὔψυχος, ἀποτρέπεσθαι τὴν γνώμην ἀπὸ τῶν νόμων. μέγα δὲ τεκμήριον τουτέων· ὁκόσοι γὰρ ἐν τῇ Ἀσίῃ Ἕλληνες ἢ βάρβαροι μὴ δεσπόζονται, ἀλλ' αὐτόνομοί εἰσι καὶ ἑωυτέοισι ταλαιπωρεῦσιν, οὗτοι μαχιμώτατοί εἰσι πάντων· τοὺς γὰρ κινδύνους ἑωυτέων πέρι κινδυνεύουσιν, καὶ τῆς ἀνδρείης αὐτέοι τὰ ἆθλα φέρονται, καὶ τῆς δειλίης τὴν ζημίην ὡσαύτως. εὑρήσεις δὲ καὶ τοὺς Ἀσιηνοὺς διαφέροντας αὐτοὺς ἑωυτέων, τοὺς μὲν βελτίονας, τοὺς δὲ φαυλοτέρους ἐόντας· τουτέων δὲ αἱ μεταβολαὶ αἴτιαι τῶν ὡρέων, ὥσπερ μοι εἴρηται ἐν τοῖσι προτέροισιν. καὶ περὶ μὲν τῶν ἐν τῇ Ἀσίῃ οὕτως ἔχει. 16. And with regard to the pusillanimity and cowardice of the inhabitants, the principal reason the Asiatics are more unwarlike and of gentler disposition than the Europeans is, the nature of the seasons, which do not undergo any great changes either to heat or cold, or the like; for there is neither excitement of the understanding nor any strong change of the body whereby the temper might be ruffled and they be roused to inconsiderate emotion and passion, rather than living as they do always in the state. It is changes of all kinds which arouse understanding of mankind, and do not allow them to get into a torpid condition. For these reasons, it appears to me, the Asiatic race is feeble, and further, owing to their laws; for monarchy prevails in the greater part of Asia, and where men are not their own masters nor independent, but are the slaves of others, it is not a matter of consideration with them how they may acquire military discipline, but how they may seem not to be warlike, for the dangers are not equally shared, since they must serve as soldiers, perhaps endure fatigue, and die for their masters, far from their children, their wives, and other friends; and whatever noble and manly actions they may perform lead only to the aggrandizement of their masters, whilst the fruits which they reap are dangers and death; and, in addition to all this, the lands of such persons must be laid waste by the enemy and want of culture. Thus, then, if any one be naturally warlike and courageous, his disposition will be changed by the institutions. As a strong proof of all this, such Greeks or barbarians in Asia as are not under a despotic form of government, but are independent, and enjoy the fruits of their own labors, are of all others the most warlike; for these encounter dangers on their own account, bear the prizes of their own valor, and in like manner endure the punishment of their own cowardice. And you will find the Asiatics differing from one another, for some are better and others more dastardly; of these differences, as I stated before, the changes of the seasons are the cause. Thus it is with Asia.

17 ἐν δὲ τῇ Εὐρώπῃ ἐστὶν ἔθνος Σκυθικὸν, ὃ περὶ τὴν λίμνην οἰκέει τὴν Μαιῶτιν, διαφέρον τῶν ἐθνέων τῶν ἄλλων, Σαυρομάται καλεῦνται. τουτέων αἱ γυναῖκες ἱππάζονταί τε καὶ τοξεύουσι, καὶ ἀκοντίζουσιν ἀπὸ τῶν ἵππων, καὶ μάχονται τοῖσι πολεμίοισιν, ἕως ἂν παρθένοι ἔωσιν. οὐκ ἀποπαρθενεύονται δὲ μέχρις ἂν τῶν πολεμίων τρεῖς ἀποκτείνωσι, καὶ οὐ πρότερον ξυνοικέουσιν ἤπερ τὰ ἱερὰ θύουσαι τὰ ἐν νόμῳ. ἣ δ' ἂν ἄνδρα ἑωυτῇ ἄρηται, παύεται ἱππαζομένη, ἕως ἂν μὴ ἀνάγκη καταλάβῃ παγκοίνου στρατείης. τὸν δεξιὸν δὲ μαζὸν οὐκ ἔχουσιν. παιδίοισι γὰρ ἐοῦσιν ἔτι νηπίοισιν αἱ μητέρες χαλκεῖον τετεχνημένον ἐπ' αὐτέῳ τουτέῳ διάπυρον ποιέουσαι, πρὸς τὸν μαζὸν τιθέασι τὸν δεξιὸν, καὶ ἐπικαίεται, ὥστε τὴν αὔξησιν φθείρεσθαι, ἐς δὲ τὸν δεξιὸν ὦμον καὶ βραχίονα πᾶσαν τὴν ἰσχὺν καὶ τὸ πλῆθος ἐκδιδόναι. 17. In Europe there is a Scythian race, called Sauromatae, which inhabits the confines of the Palus Maeotis, and is different from all other races. Their women mount on horseback, use the bow, and throw the javelin from their horses, and fight with their enemies as long as they are virgins; and they do not lay aside their virginity until they kill three of their enemies, nor have any connection with men until they perform the sacrifices according to law. Whoever takes to herself a husband, gives up riding on horseback unless the necessity of a general expedition obliges her. They have no right breast; for while still of a tender age their mothers heat strongly a copper instrument constructed for this very purpose, and apply it to the right breast, which is burnt up, and its development being arrested, all the strength and fullness are determined to the right shoulder and arm.

18 περὶ δὲ τῶν λοιπῶν Σκυθέων τῆς μορφῆς, ὅτι αὐτοὶ ἑωυτοῖσιν ἐοίκασι, καὶ οὐδαμῶς ἄλλοισιν, ὠυτὸς λόγος καὶ περὶ τῶν Αἰγυπτίων, πλὴν, ὅτι οἱ μὲν ὑπὸ τοῦ θερμοῦ εἰσι βεβιασμένοι, οἱ δ' ὑπὸ τοῦ ψυχροῦ. ἡ δὲ Σκυθέων ἐρημίη καλευμένη πεδιάς ἐστι καὶ λειμακώδης καὶ ὑψηλὴ, καὶ ἔνυδρος μετρίως· ποταμοὶ γάρ εἰσι μεγάλοι οἳ ἐξοχετεύουσι τὸ ὕδωρ ἐκ τῶν πεδίων. ἐνταῦθα καὶ οἱ Σκύθαι διαιτεῦνται, Νομάδες δὲ καλεῦνται, ὅτι οὐκ ἔστιν οἰκήματα, ἀλλ' ἐν ἁμάξῃσιν οἰκεῦσιν. αἱ δὲ ἅμαξαί εἰσιν, αἱ μὲν ἐλάχισται, τετράκυκλοι, αἱ δὲ ἑξάκυκλοι· αὗται δὲ πίλοισι περιπεφραγμέναι· εἰσὶ δὲ καὶ τετεχνασμέναι ὥσπερ οἰκήματα, τὰ μὲν ἁπλᾶ, τὰ δὲ τριπλᾶ· ταῦτα δὲ καὶ στεγνὰ πρὸς ὕδωρ, καὶ πρὸς χιόνα, καὶ πρὸς τὰ πνεύματα. τὰς δὲ ἁμάξας ἕλκουσι ζεύγεα, τὰς μὲν δύο, τὰς δὲ τρία βοῶν, κέρως ἄτερ· οὐ γὰρ ἔχουσι κέρατα ὑπὸ ψύχεος. ἐν ταύτῃσι μὲν οὖν τῇσιν ἁμάξῃσιν αἱ γυναῖκες διαιτεῦνται· αὐτοὶ δ' ἐφ' ἵππων ὀχεῦνται οἱ ἄνδρες· ἕπονται δὲ αὐτέοισι καὶ τὰ πρόβατα ἐόντα καὶ αἱ βόες καὶ οἱ ἵπποι· μένουσι δ' ἐν τῷ αὐτέῳ τοσοῦτον χρόνον, ὅσον ἂν ἀπόχρη ωὐτέοισι τοῖσι κτήνεσιν ὁ χόρτος· ὁκόταν δὲ μηκέτι, ἐς ἑτέρην χώρην μετέρχονται. αὐτοὶ δ' ἐσθίουσι κρέα ἑφθὰ, καὶ πίνουσι γάλα ἵππων, καὶ ἱππάκην τρώγουσιν· τοῦτο δ' ἐστὶ τυρὸς ἵππων. τὰ μὲν ἐς τὴν δίαιταν αὐτέων οὕτως ἔχει καὶ τοὺς νόμους. 18. As the other Scythians have a peculiarity of shape, and do not resemble any other, the same observation applies to the Egyptians, only that the latter are oppressed by heat and the former by cold. What is called the Scythian desert is a prairie, rich in meadows, high-lying, and well watered; for the rivers which carry off the water from the plains are large. There live those Scythians which are called Nomades, because they have no houses, but live in wagons. The smallest of these wagons have four wheels, but some have six; they are covered in with felt, and they are constructed in the manner of houses, some having but a single apartment, and some three; they are proof against rain, snow, and winds. The wagons are drawn by yokes of oxen, some of two and others of three, and all without horns, for they have no horns, owing to the cold. In these wagons the women live, but the men are carried about on horses, and the sheep, oxen, and horses accompany them; and they remain on any spot as long as there is provender for their cattle, and when that fails they migrate to some other place. They eat boiled meat, and drink the milk of mares, and also eat hippace, which is cheese prepared from the milk of the mare. Such is their mode of life and their customs.

19 περὶ δὲ τῶν ὡρέων καὶ τῆς μορφῆς, ὅτι πολὺ ἀπήλλακται τῶν λοιπῶν ἀνθρώπων τὸ Σκυθικὸν γένος, καὶ ἔοικεν αὐτὸ ἑωυτέῳ, ὥσπερ τὸ Αἰγύπτιον, καὶ ἥκιστα πολύγονόν ἐστιν· καὶ ἡ χώρη ἐλάχιστα θηρία τρέφει κατὰ μέγεθος καὶ πλῆθος. κέεται γὰρ ὑπ' αὐτῇσι τῇσιν ἄρκτοισι καὶ τοῖσιν ὄρεσι τοῖσι Ῥιπαίοισιν, ὅθεν ὁ βορέης πνέει· ὅ τε ἥλιος τελευτῶν ἐγγύτατα γίγνεται, ὁκόταν ἐπὶ τὰς θερινὰς ἔλθῃ περιόδους, καὶ τότε ὀλίγον χρόνον θερμαίνει, καὶ οὐ σφόδρα· τὰ δὲ πνεύματα τὰ ἀπὸ τῶν θερμῶν πνέοντα οὐκ ἀφικνέεται, ἢν μὴ ὀλιγάκις καὶ ἀσθενέα, ἀλλ' ἀπὸ τῶν ἄρκτων αἰεὶ πνέουσι πνεύματα ψυχρὰ ἀπό τε χιόνος καὶ κρυστάλλων καὶ ὑδάτων πολλῶν· οὐδέποτε δὲ τὰ ὄρεα ἐκλείπει· ἀπὸ τουτέων δὲ δυσοίκητά ἐστιν. ἠήρ τε κατέχει πουλὺς τῆς ἡμέρης τὰ πεδία, καὶ ἐν αὐτέοισι διαιτεῦνται· ὥστε τὸν μὲν χειμῶνα αἰεὶ εἶναι, τὸ δὲ θέρος ὀλίγας ἡμέρας, καὶ ταύτας μὴ λίην. μετέωρα γὰρ τὰ πεδία καὶ ψιλὰ, καὶ οὐκ ἐστεφάνωνται ὄρεσιν, ἀλλ' ἀνάντεα ὑπὸ τῶν ἄρκτων. αὐτόθι καὶ τὰ θηρία οὐ γίγνεται μεγάλα, ἀλλ' οἷά τέ ἐστιν ὑπὸ γῆν σκεπάζεσθαι ὁ γὰρ χειμὼν κωλύει καὶ τῆς γῆς ἡ ψιλότης, καὶ ὅτι οὐκ ἔστιν ἀλέη οὐδὲ σκέπη. αἱ γὰρ μεταβολαὶ τῶν ὡρέων οὐκ εἰσὶ μεγάλαι οὐδὲ ἰσχυραὶ, ἀλλ' ὅμοιαι καὶ ὀλίγον μεταβάλλουσαι· διότι καὶ τὰ εἴδεα ὅμοια αὐτὰ ἑωυτέοισίν εἰσιν· σίτῳ τε χρέονται αἰεὶ ὁμοίως, ἐσθῆτί τε τῇ αὐτέῃ καὶ θέρεος καὶ χειμῶνος, τόν τε ἠέρα ὑδατεινὸν ἕλκοντες καὶ παχὺν, τά τε ὕδατα πίνοντες ἀπὸ χιόνος καὶ παγετῶν, τοῦ τε ταλαιπώρου ἀπεόντος· οὐ γὰρ οἷόν τε τὸ σῶμα ταλαιπωρέεσθαι, οὐδὲ τὴν ψυχὴν, ὅκου μεταβολαὶ μὴ γίγνονται ἰσχυραί. διὰ ταύτας τὰς ἀνάγκας τὰ εἴδεα αὐτέων παχέα ἐστὶ καὶ σαρκώδεα, καὶ ἄναρθρα καὶ ὑγρὰ καὶ ἄτονα· αἵ τε κοιλίαι ὑγρόταται, πασέων κοιλιῶν αἱ κάτω· οὐ γὰρ οἷόν τε νηδὺν ἀναξηραίνεσθαι ἐν τοιαύτῃ χώρῃ καὶ φύσει καὶ ὥρης καταστάσει· ἀλλὰ διὰ πιμελήν τε καὶ ψιλὴν τὴν σάρκα, τά τε εἴδεα ἔοικεν ἀλλήλοισι, τά τε ἄρσενα τοῖσιν ἄρσεσι, καὶ τὰ θήλεα τοῖσι θήλεσιν. τῶν γὰρ ὡρέων παραπλησίων ἐουσέων, φθοραὶ οὐκ ἐγγίγνονται οὐδὲ κακώσιες ἐν τῇ τοῦ γόνου ξυμπήξει, ἢν μή τινος ἀνάγκης βιαίου τύχῃ ἢ νούσου. 19. In respect of the seasons and figure of body, the Scythian race, like the Egyptian, have a uniformity of resemblance, different from all other nations; they are by no means prolific, and the wild beasts which are indigenous there are small in size and few in number, for the country lies under the Northern Bears, and the Rhiphaean mountains, whence the north wind blows; the sun comes very near to them only when in the summer solstice, and warms them but for a short period, and not strongly; and the winds blowing from the hot regions of the earth do not reach them, or but seldom, and with little force; but the winds from the north always blow, congealed, as they are, by the snow, ice, and much water, for these never leave the mountains, which are thereby rendered uninhabitable. A thick fog covers the plains during the day, and amidst it they live, so that winter may be said to be always present with them; or, if they have summer, it is only for a few days, and the heat is not very strong. Their plains are high-lying and naked, not crowned with mountains, but extending upwards under the Northern Bears. The wild beasts there are not large, but such as can be sheltered underground; for the cold of winter and the barrenness of the country prevent their growth, and because they have no covert nor shelter. The changes of the seasons, too, are not great nor violent, for, in fact, they change gradually; and therefore their figures resemble one another, as they all equally use the same food, and the same clothing summer and winter, respiring a humid and dense atmosphere, and drinking water from snow and ice; neither do they make any laborious exertions, for neither body nor mind is capable of enduring fatigue when the changes of the seasons are not great. For these reasons their shapes are gross and fleshy, with ill-marked joints, of a humid temperament, and deficient in tone: the internal cavities, and especially those of the intestines, are full of humors; for the belly cannot possibly be dry in such a country, with such a constitution and in such a climate; but owing to their fat, and the absence of hairs from their bodies, their shapes resemble one another, the males being all alike, and so also with the women; for the seasons being of a uniform temperature, no corruption or deterioration takes place in the concretion of the semen, unless from some violent cause, or from disease.

20 μέγα δὲ τεκμήριον ἐς τὴν ὑγρότητα παρέξομαι. Σκυθέων γὰρ τοὺς πολλοὺς, ἅπαντας ὅσοι Νομάδες, εὑρήσεις κεκαυμένους τούς τε ὤμους καὶ τοὺς βραχίονας καὶ τοὺς καρποὺς τῶν χειρέων, καὶ τὰ στήθεα, καὶ τὰ ἰσχία καὶ τὴν ὀσφὺν, δι' ἄλλ' οὐδὲν ἢ διὰ τὴν ὑγρότητα τῆς φύσιος καὶ τὴν μαλακίην· οὐ γὰρ δύνανται οὔτε τοῖσι τόξοισι ξυντείνειν, οὔτε τῷ ἀκοντίῳ ἐμπίπτειν τῷ ὤμῳ ὑπὸ ὑγρότητος καὶ ἀτονίης· ὁκόταν δὲ καυθῶσιν, ἀναξηραίνεται ἐκ τῶν ἄρθρων τὸ πολὺ τοῦ ὑγροῦ, καὶ ἐντονώτερα μᾶλλον γίγνεται, καὶ τροφιμώτερα, καὶ ἠρθρωμένα τὰ σώματα μᾶλλον. ῥοικὰ δὲ γίγνεται καὶ πλατέα· πρῶτον μὲν ὅτι οὐ σπαργανοῦνται ὥσπερ ἐν Αἰγύπτῳ, οὐδὲ νομίζουσι διὰ τὴν ἱππασίην, ὅκως ἂν εὔεδροι ἔωσιν· ἔπειτα δὲ διὰ τὴν ἕδρην· τά τε γὰρ ἄρσενα, ἕως ἂν οὐχ οἷά τε ἐφ' ἵππου ὀχέεσθαι, τὸ πολὺ τοῦ χρόνου κάθηται ἐν τῇ ἁμάξῃ, καὶ βραχὺ τῇ βαδίσει χρέονται, διὰ τὰς μεταναστάσιας καὶ περιελάσιας· τὰ δὲ θήλεα θαυμαστὸν οἷον ῥοικὰ καὶ βραδέα εἶναι τὰ εἴδεα. πυῤῥὸν δὲ τὸ γένος ἐστὶ τὸ Σκυθικὸν διὰ τὸ ψύχος, οὐκ ἐπιγιγνομένου ὀξέως τοῦ ἡλίου· ὑπὸ δὲ τοῦ ψύχεος ἡ λευκότης ἐπικαίεται καὶ γίγνεται πυῤῥή. 20. I Will give you a strong proof of the humidity (laxity?) of their constitutions. You will find the greater part of the Scythians, and all the Nomades, with marks of the cautery on their shoulders, arms, wrists, breasts, hip-joints, and loins, and that for no other reason but the humidity and flabbiness of their constitution, for they can neither strain with their bows, nor launch the javelin from their shoulder owing to their humidity and atony: but when they are burnt, much of the humidity in their joints is dried up, and they become better braced, better fed, and their joints get into a more suitable condition. They are flabby and squat at first, because, as in Egypt, they are not swathed (?); and then they pay no attention to horsemanship, so that they may be adepts at it; and because of their sedentary mode of life; for the males, when they cannot be carried about on horseback, sit the most of their time in the wagon, and rarely practise walking, because of their frequent migrations and shiftings of situation; and as to the women, it is amazing how flabby and sluggish they are. The Scythian race are tawny from the cold, and not from the intense heat of the sun, for the whiteness of the skin is parched by the cold, and becomes tawny.

21 πολύγονον δὲ οὐχ οἷόν τε εἶναι φύσιν τοιαύτην· οὔτε γὰρ τῷ ἀνδρὶ ἡ ἐπιθυμίη τῆς μίξιος γίγνεται πολλὴ διὰ τὴν ὑγρότητα τῆς φύσιος καὶ τῆς κοιλίης τὴν μαλθακότητά τε καὶ τὴν ψυχρότητα, ἀπὸ τῶν ἥκιστα εἰκὸς εἶναι ἄνδρα οἷόν τε λαγνεύειν· καὶ ἔτι ὑπὸ τῶν ἵππων αἰεὶ κοπτόμενοι, ἀσθενέες γίγνονται ἐς τὴν μίξιν. τοῖσι μὲν ἀνδράσιν αὗται αἱ προφάσιες γίγνονται· τῇσι δὲ γυναιξὶν ἥ τε πιότης τῆς σαρκὸς καὶ ὑγρότης· οὐ γὰρ δύνανται ἔτι ξυναρπάζειν αἱ μῆτραι τὸν γόνον· οὔτε γὰρ ἐπιμήνιος κάθαρσις αὐτέῃσι γίγνεται ὡς χρεών ἐστιν, ἀλλ' ὀλίγον καὶ διὰ χρόνου· τό τε στόμα τῶν μητρέων ὑπὸ πιμελῆς ξυγκλείεται, καὶ οὐχ ὑποδέχεται τὸν γόνον· αὐταί τε ἀταλαίπωροι καὶ πίεραι, καὶ αἱ κοιλίαι ψυχραὶ καὶ μαλακαί. καὶ ὑπὸ τουτέων τῶν ἀναγκέων οὐ πολύγονόν ἐστι τὸ γένος τὸ Σκυθικόν. μέγα δὲ τεκμήριον αἱ οἰκέτιδες ποιέουσιν· οὐ γὰρ φθάνουσι παρὰ ἄνδρα ἀφικνεύμεναι, καὶ ἐν γαστρὶ ἴσχουσι διὰ τὴν ταλαιπωρίην καὶ ἰσχνότητα τῆς σαρκός. 21. It is impossible that persons of such a constitution could be prolific, for, with the man, the sexual desires are not strong, owing to the laxity of his constitution, the softness and coldness of his belly, from all which causes it is little likely that a man should be given to venery; and besides, from being jaded by exercise on horseback, the men become weak in their desires. On the part of the men these are the causes; but on that of the women, they are embonpoint and humidity; for the womb cannot take in the semen, nor is the menstrual discharge such as it should be, but scanty and at too long intervals; and the mouth of the womb is shut up by fat and does not admit the semen; and, moreover, they themselves are indolent and fat, and their bellies cold and soft. From these causes the Scythian race is not prolific. Their female servants furnish a strong proof of this; for they no sooner have connection with a man than they prove with child, owing to their active course of life and the slenderness of body.

22 ἔτι τε πρὸς τουτέοισιν εὐνουχίαι γίγνονται οἱ πλεῖστοι ἐν Σκύθῃσι, καὶ γυναικεῖα ἐργάζονται, καὶ ὡς αἱ γυναῖκες διαλέγονται ὁμοίως· καλεῦνταί τε οἱ τοιοῦτοι ἀνανδριεῖς. οἱ μὲν ἐπιχώριοι τὴν αἰτίην προστιθέασι θεῷ, καὶ σέβονται τουτέους τοὺς ἀνθρώπους καὶ προσκυνέουσι, δεδοικότες περὶ ἑωυτέων ἕκαστοι. ἐμοὶ δὲ καὶ αὐτέῳ δοκέει ταῦτα τὰ πάθεα θεῖα εἶναι καὶ τἄλλα πάντα, καὶ οὐδὲν ἕτερον ἑτέρου θειότερον οὐδὲ ἀνθρωπινώτερον, ἀλλὰ πάντα ὅμοια καὶ πάντα θεῖα· ἕκαστον δὲ ἔχει φύσιν τῶν τοιουτέων, καὶ οὐδὲν ἄνευ φύσιος γίγνεται. καὶ τοῦτο τὸ πάθος, ὥς μοι δοκέει γίγνεσθαι, φράσω· ὑπὸ τῆς ἱππασίης αὐτέους κέδματα λαμβάνει, ἅτε αἰεὶ κρεμαμένων ἀπὸ τῶν ἵππων τοῖσι ποσίν· ἔπειτα ἀποχωλοῦνται καὶ ἕλκονται τὰ ἰσχία οἳ ἂν σφόδρα νοσήσωσιν. Ἰῶνται δὲ σφᾶς αὐτέους τρόπῳ τοιῷδε· ὁκόταν ἄρχηται ἡ νοῦσος, ὄπισθεν τοῦ ὠτὸς ἑκατέρην φλέβα τάμνουσιν· ὅταν δὲ ἀποῤῥυῇ τὸ αἷμα, ὕπνος ὑπολαμβάνει ὑπὸ ἀσθενείης, καὶ καθεύδουσιν· ἔπειτα ἀνεγείρονται, οἱ μέν τινες ὑγιέες ἐόντες, οἱ δ' οὔ. ἐμοὶ μὲν οὖν δοκέει ἐν ταύτῃ τῇ ἰήσει διαφθείρεσθαι ὁ γόνος· εἰσὶ γὰρ παρὰ τὰ ὦτα φλέβες, ἃς ἐάν τις ἐπιτάμῃ, ἄγονοι γίγνονται οἱ ἐπιτμηθέντες· ταύτας τοίνυν μοι δοκέουσι τὰς φλέβας ἐπιτάμνειν. οἱ δὲ μετὰ ταῦτα, ἐπειδὰν ἀφίκωνται παρὰ γυναῖκας, καὶ μὴ οἷοί τε ἔωσι χρέεσθαι σφίσιν, τὸ πρῶτον οὐκ ἐνθυμεῦνται, ἀλλ' ἡσυχίην ἔχουσιν· ὁκόταν δὲ δὶς καὶ τρὶς καὶ πλεονάκις αὐτέοισι πειρωμένοισι μηδὲν ἀλλοιότερον ἀποβαίνῃ, νομίσαντές τι ἡμαρτηκέναι τῷ θεῷ ὃν ἐπαιτιῶνται, ἐνδύονται στολὴν γυναικείην, καταγνόντες ἑωυτέων ἀνανδρείην· γυναικίζουσί τε καὶ ἐργάζονται μετὰ τῶν γυναικῶν ἃ καὶ ἐκεῖναι. τοῦτο δὲ πάσχουσι Σκυθέων οἱ πλούσιοι, οὐχ οἱ κάκιστοι, ἀλλ' οἱ εὐγενέστατοι καὶ ἰσχὺν πλείστην κεκτημένοι, διὰ τὴν ἱππασίην· οἱ δὲ πένητες ἧσσον· οὐ γὰρ ἱππάζονται. καίτοι ἐχρῆν, ἐπεὶ θειότερον τοῦτο τὸ νόσευμα τῶν λοιπῶν ἐστιν, οὐ τοῖσι γενναιοτάτοισι τῶν Σκυθέων καὶ τοῖσι πλουσιωτάτοισι προσπίπτειν μούνοισι, ἀλλὰ τοῖσιν ἅπασιν ὁμοίως, καὶ μᾶλλον τοῖσιν ὀλίγα κεκτημένοισιν, οὐ τιμωμένοισιν ἤδη, εἰ χαίρουσιν οἱ θεοὶ καὶ θαυμαζόμενοι ὑπ' ἀνθρώπων, καὶ ἀντὶ τουτέων χάριτας ἀποδιδόασιν. εἰκὸς γὰρ τοὺς μὲν πλουσίους θύειν πολλὰ τοῖσι θεοῖσι, καὶ ἀνατιθέναι ἀναθήματα, ἐόντων χρημάτων, καὶ τιμᾷν, τοὺς δὲ πένητας ἧσσον, διὰ τὸ μὴ ἔχειν, ἔπειτα καὶ ἐπιμεμφομένους ὅτι οὐ διδόασι χρήματα αὐτέοισιν· ὥστε τῶν τοιουτέων ἁμαρτιῶν τὰς ζημίας τοὺς ὀλίγα κεκτημένους φέρειν μᾶλλον ἢ τοὺς πλουσίους. ἀλλὰ γὰρ, ὥσπερ καὶ πρότερον ἔλεξα, θεῖα μὲν καὶ ταῦτά ἐστιν ὁμοίως τοῖσιν ἄλλοισιν· γίγνεται δὲ κατὰ φύσιν ἕκαστα· καὶ ἡ τοιαύτη νοῦσος ἀπὸ τοιαύτης προφάσιος τοῖσι Σκύθῃσι γίγνεται οἵην εἴρηκα. ἔχει δὲ καὶ κατὰ τοὺς λοιποὺς ἀνθρώπους ὁμοίως. ὅκου γὰρ ἱππάζονται μάλιστα καὶ πυκνότατα, ἐκεῖ πλεῖστοι ὑπὸ κεδμάτων καὶ ἰσχιάδων καὶ ποδαγριῶν ἁλίσκονται, καὶ λαγνεύειν κάκιστοί εἰσιν. ταῦτα δὲ τοῖσί τε Σκύθῃσι πρόσεστι, καὶ εὐνουχοειδέστατοί εἰσιν ἀνθρώπων διὰ τὰς προειρημένας προφάσιας, καὶ ὅτι ἀναξυρίδας ἔχουσιν αἰεὶ, καὶ εἰσὶν ἐπὶ τῶν ἵππων τὸ πλεῖστον τοῦ χρόνου, ὥστε μήτε χειρὶ ἅπτεσθαι τοῦ αἰδοίου, ὑπό τε τοῦ ψύχεος καὶ τοῦ κόπου ἐπιλαθέσθαι τοῦ ἱμέρου καὶ τῆς μίξιος, καὶ μηδὲν παρακινέειν πρότερον ἢ ἀνανδρωθῆναι. περὶ μὲν οὖν τῶν Σκυθέων οὕτως ἔχει τοῦ γένεος. 22. And, in addition to these, there are many eunuchs among the Scythians, who perform female work, and speak like women. Such persons are called effeminates. The inhabitants of the country attribute the cause of their impotence to a god, and venerate and worship such persons, every one dreading that the like might befall himself; but to me it appears that such affections are just as much divine as all others are, and that no one disease is either more divine or more human than another, but that all are alike divine, for that each has its own nature, and that no one arises without a natural cause. But I will explain how I think that the affection takes its rise. From continued exercise on horseback they are seized with chronic defluxions in their joints owing to their legs always hanging down below their horses; they afterwards become lame and stiff at the hip-joint, such of them, at least, as are severely attacked with it. They treat themselves in this way: when the disease is commencing, they open the vein behind either ear, and when the blood flows, sleep, from feebleness, seizes them, and afterwards they awaken, some in good health and others not. To me it appears that the semen is altered by this treatment, for there are veins behind the ears which, if cut, induce impotence; now, these veins would appear to me to be cut. Such persons afterwards, when they go in to women and cannot have connection with them, at first do not think much about it, but remain quiet; but when, after making the attempt two, three, or more times, they succeed no better, fancying they have committed some offence against the god whom they blame for the affection, they put on female attire, reproach themselves for effeminacy, play the part of women, and perform the same work as women do. This the rich among the Scythians endure, not the basest, but the most noble and powerful, owing to their riding on horseback; for the poor are less affected, as they do not ride on horses. And yet, if this disease had been more divine than the others, it ought not to have befallen the most noble and the richest of the Scythians alone, but all alike, or rather those who have little, as not being able to pay honors to the gods, if, indeed, they delight in being thus rewarded by men, and grant favors in return; for it is likely that the rich sacrifice more to the gods, and dedicate more votive offerings, inasmuch as they have wealth, and worship the gods; whereas the poor, from want, do less in this way, and, moreover, upbraid the gods for not giving them wealth, so that those who have few possessions were more likely to bear the punishments of these offences than the rich. But, as I formerly said, these affections are divine just as much as others, for each springs from a natural cause, and this disease arises among the Scythians from such a cause as I have stated. But it attacks other men in like manner, for whenever men ride much and very frequently on horseback, then many are affected with rheums in the joints, sciatica, and gout, and they are inept at venery. But these complaints befall the Scythians, and they are the most impotent of men for the aforesaid causes, and because they always wear breeches, and spend the most of their time on horseback, so as not to touch their privy parts with the hands, and from the cold and fatigue they forget the sexual desire, and do not make the attempt until after they have lost their virility. Thus it is with the race of the Scythians.

23 τὸ δὲ λοιπὸν γένος τὸ ἐν τῇ Εὐρώπῃ διάφορον αὐτὸ ἑωυτέῳ ἐστι, καὶ κατὰ τὸ μέγεθος καὶ κατὰ τὰς μορφὰς, διὰ τὰς μεταλλαγὰς τῶν ὡρέων, ὅτι μεγάλαι γίγνονται καὶ πυκναὶ, καὶ θάλπεά τε ἰσχυρὰ καὶ χειμῶνες καρτεροὶ, καὶ ὄμβροι πολλοὶ, καὶ αὖθις αὐχμοὶ πολυχρόνιοι, καὶ πνεύματα, ἐξ ὧν μεταβολαὶ πολλαὶ καὶ παντοδαπαί. ἀπὸ τουτέων εἰκὸς αἰσθάνεσθαι καὶ τὴν γένεσιν ἐν τῇ ξυμπήξει τοῦ γόνου ἄλλην καὶ μὴ τῷ αὐτέῳ τὴν αὐτέην γίγνεσθαι, ἔν τε τῷ θέρει καὶ τῷ χειμῶνι, μηδὲ ἐν ἐπομβρίῃ καὶ αὐχμῷ· διότι τὰ εἴδεα διηλλάχθαι νομίζω τῶν Εὐρωπαίων μᾶλλον ἢ τῶν Ἀσιηνῶν· καὶ τὰ μεγέθεα διαφορώτατα αὐτὰ ἑωυτοῖσιν εἶναι κατὰ πόλιν ἑκάστην· αἱ γὰρ φθοραὶ πλείονες ἐγγίγνονται τοῦ γόνου ἐν τῇ ξυμπήξει ἐν τῇσι μεταλλαγῇσι τῶν ὡρέων πυκνῇσιν ἐούσῃσιν ἢ ἐν τῇσι παραπλησίῃσι καὶ ὁμοίῃσιν. περί τε τῶν ἠθέων ὁ αὐτὸς λόγος· τό τε ἄγριον καὶ τὸ ἄμικτον καὶ τὸ θυμοειδὲς ἐν τῇ τοιαύτῃ φύσει ἐγγίγνεται· αἱ γὰρ ἐκπλήξιες πυκναὶ γιγνόμεναι τῆς γνώμης τὴν ἀγριότητα ἐντιθέασιν· τὸ δὲ ἥμερόν τε καὶ ἤπιον ἀμαυροῦσιν· διότι εὐψυχοτέρους νομίζω τοὺς τὴν Εὐρώπην οἰκέοντας εἶναι ἢ τοὺς τὴν Ἀσίην· ἐν μὲν γὰρ τῷ αἰεὶ παραπλησίῳ αἱ ῥᾳθυμίαι ἔνεισιν, ἐν δὲ τῷ μεταβαλλομένῳ αἱ ταλαιπωρίαι τῷ σώματι καὶ τῇ ψυχῇ· καὶ ἀπὸ μὲν ἡσυχίης καὶ ῥᾳθυμίης ἡ δειλίη αὔξεται, ἀπὸ δὲ τῆς ταλαιπωρίης καὶ τῶν πόνων αἱ ἀνδρεῖαι. διὰ τοῦτό εἰσι μαχιμώτεροι οἱ τὴν Εὐρώπην οἰκέοντες, καὶ διὰ τοὺς νόμους, ὅτι οὐ βασιλεύονται ὥσπερ οἱ Ἀσιηνοί· ὅκου γὰρ βασιλεύονται, ἐκεῖ ἀνάγκη δειλοτάτους εἶναι· εἴρηται δέ μοι καὶ πρότερον. αἱ γὰρ ψυχαὶ δεδούλωνται καὶ, οὐ βούλονται παρακινδυνεύειν ἑκόντες εἰκῆ ὑπὲρ ἀλλοτρίης δυνάμιος. ὅσοι δὲ αὐτόνομοι, ὑπὲρ ἑωυτέων γὰρ τοὺς κινδύνους αἱρεῦνται καὶ οὐκ ἄλλων, προθυμεῦνται ἑκόντες καὶ ἐς τὸ δεινὸν ἔρχονται· τὰ γὰρ ἀριστεῖα τῆς νίκης αὐτοὶ φέρονται· οὕτως οἱ νόμοι οὐχ ἥκιστα τὴν εὐψυχίην ἐργάζονται. τὸ μὲν οὖν ὅλον καὶ τὸ ἅπαν οὕτως ἔχει περί τε τῆς Εὐρώπης καὶ τῆς Ἀσίης. 23. The other races in Europe differ from one another, both as to stature and shape, owing to the changes of the seasons, which are very great and frequent, and because the heat is strong, the winters severe, and there are frequent rains, and again protracted droughts, and winds, from which many and diversified changes are induced. These changes are likely to have an effect upon generation in the coagulation of the semen, as this process cannot be the same in summer as in winter, nor in rainy as in dry weather; wherefore, I think, that the figures of Europeans differ more than those of Asiatics; and they differ very much from one another as to stature in the same city; for vitiations of the semen occur in its coagulation more frequently during frequent changes of the seasons, than where they are alike and equable. And the same may be said of their dispositions, for the wild, and unsociable, and the passionate occur in such a constitution; for frequent excitement of the mind induces wildness, and extinguishes sociableness and mildness of disposition, and therefore I think the inhabitants of Europe more courageous than those of Asia; for a climate which is always the same induces indolence, but a changeable climate, laborious exertions both of body and mind; and from rest and indolence cowardice is engendered, and from laborious exertions and pains, courage. On this account the inhabitants of Europe are than the Asiatics, and also owing to their institutions, because they are not governed by kings like the latter, for where men are governed by kings there they must be very cowardly, as I have stated before; for their souls are enslaved, and they will not willingly, or readily undergo dangers in order to promote the power of another; but those that are free undertake dangers on their own account, and not for the sake of others; they court hazard and go out to meet it, for they themselves bear off the rewards of victory, and thus their institutions contribute not a little to their courage.
Such is the general character of Europe and Asia.

24 ἔνεισι δὲ καὶ ἐν τῇ Εὐρώπῃ φῦλα διάφορα ἕτερα ἑτέροισι καὶ τὰ μεγέθεα καὶ τὰς μορφὰς καὶ τὰς ἀνδρείας· τὰ δὲ διαλλάσσοντα ταῦτά ἐστιν, ἃ καὶ ἐπὶ τῶν πρότερον εἴρηται· ἔτι δὲ σαφέστερον φράσω. ὁκόσοι μὲν χώρην ὀρεινήν τε οἰκέουσι καὶ τρηχείην καὶ ὑψηλὴν καὶ ἔνυδρον, καὶ αἱ μεταβολαὶ αὐτέοισι γίγνονται τῶν ὡρέων μέγα διάφοροι, ἐνταῦθα εἰκὸς εἴδεα μεγάλα εἶναι, καὶ πρὸς τὸ ταλαίπωρον καὶ τὸ ἀνδρεῖον εὖ πεφυκότα· καὶ τό τε ἄγριον καὶ τὸ θηριῶδες αἱ τοιαῦται φύσιες οὐχ ἥκιστα ἔχουσιν· ὁκόσοι δὲ κοῖλα χωρία καὶ λειμακώδεα καὶ πνιγηρὰ, καὶ τῶν θερμῶν πνευμάτων πλέον μέρος μετέχουσιν ἢ τῶν ψυχρῶν, ὕδασί τε χρέονται θερμοῖσιν, οὗτοι μεγάλοι μὲν οὐκ ἂν εἴησαν οὐδὲ κανονίαι· ἐς εὖρος δὲ πεφυκότες καὶ σαρκώδεες καὶ μελανότριχες· καὶ αὐτοὶ μέλανες μᾶλλον ἢ λευκότεροι, φλεγματίαι τε ἧσσον ἢ χολώδεες· τὸ δὲ ἀνδρεῖον καὶ τὸ ταλαίπωρον ἐν τῇ ψυχῇ, φύσει μὲν οὐκ ἂν ὁμοίως ἐνείη, νόμος δὲ προσγενόμενος ἀπεργάσοιτ' ἄν. καὶ εἰ μὲν ποταμοὶ ἐνείησαν ἐν τῇ χώρῃ, οἵτινες ἐκ τῆς χώρης ἐξοχετεύουσι τό τε στάσιμον καὶ τὸ ὄμβριον, οὗτοι ἂν ὑγιηροί τε εἴησαν καὶ λαμπροί· εἰ μέντοι ποταμοὶ μὲν μὴ εἴησαν, τὰ δὲ ὕδατα κρηναῖά τε καὶ στάσιμα πίνοιεν καὶ ἑλώδεα, ἀνάγκη τὰ τοιαῦτα εἴδεα προγαστρότερα εἶναι καὶ σπληνώδεα. ὁκόσοι δὲ ὑψηλὴν οἰκέουσι χώρην καὶ λείην καὶ ἀνεμώδεα καὶ ἔνυδρον, εἶεν ἂν εἴδεα μεγάλοι καὶ ἑωυτέοισι παραπλήσιοι· ἀνανδρότεραι δὲ καὶ ἡμερώτεραι τουτέων αἱ γνῶμαι· ὁκόσοι δὲ λεπτά τε καὶ ἄνυδρα καὶ ψιλὰ, τῇσι δὲ μεταβολῇσι τῶν ὡρέων οὐκ εὔκρητα, ἐν ταύτῃ τῇ χώρῃ τὰ εἴδεα εἰκὸς σκληρά τε εἶναι καὶ ἔντονα, καὶ ξανθότερα ἢ μελάντερα, καὶ τὰ ἤθεα καὶ τὰς ὀργὰς αὐθάδεάς τε καὶ ἰδιογνώμονας. ὅκου γὰρ μεταβολαί εἰσι πυκνόταται τῶν ὡρέων καὶ πλεῖστον διάφοροι αὐταὶ ἑωυτέῃσιν, ἐκεῖ καὶ τὰ εἴδεα καὶ τὰ ἤθεα καὶ τὰς φύσιας εὑρήσεις πλεῖστον διαφερούσας. μέγισται μὲν οὖν εἰσιν αὗται τῆς φύσιος αἱ διαλλαγαί· ἔπειτα δὲ καὶ ἡ χώρη ἐν ᾗ ἄν τις τρέφηται, καὶ τὰ ὕδατα· εὑρήσεις γὰρ ἐπὶ τὸ πλῆθος τῆς χώρης τῇ φύσει ἀκολουθέοντα καὶ τὰ εἴδεα τῶν ἀνθρώπων καὶ τοὺς τρόπους. ὅκου μὲν γὰρ ἡ γῆ πίειρα καὶ μαλθακὴ καὶ ἔνυδρος, καὶ τὰ ὕδατα κάρτα μετέωρα ἔχουσα, ὥστε θερμὰ εἶναι τοῦ θέρεος, καὶ τοῦ χειμῶνος ψυχρὰ, καὶ τῶν ὡρέων καλῶς κέεται, ἐνταῦθα καὶ οἱ ἄνθρωποι σαρκώδεές εἰσι καὶ ἄναρθροι καὶ ὑγροὶ, καὶ ἀταλαίπωροι, καὶ τὴν ψυχὴν κακοὶ ὡς ἐπὶ τὸ πουλύ· τό τε ῥᾴθυμον καὶ τὸ ὑπνηρόν ἐστιν ἐν αὐτέοισιν ἰδεῖν· ἔς τε τὰς τέχνας παχέες καὶ οὐ λεπτοὶ οὐδ' ὀξέες. ὅκου δ' ἐστὶν ἡ χώρη ψιλή τε καὶ ἀνώχυρος καὶ τρηχείη, καὶ ὑπὸ τοῦ χειμῶνος πιεζομένη, καὶ ὑπὸ τοῦ ἡλίου κεκαυμένη, ἐνταῦθα δὲ σκληρούς τε καὶ ἰσχνοὺς καὶ διηρθρωμένους καὶ ἐντόνους καὶ δασέας ἂν ἴδοις· τό τε ἐργατικὸν ὀξὺ ἐνεὸν ἐν τῇ φύσει τῇ τοιαύτῃ καὶ τὸ ἄγρυπνον, τά τε ἤθεα καὶ τὰς ὀργὰς αὐθάδεας καὶ ἰδιογνώμονας, τοῦ τε ἀγρίου μᾶλλον μετέχοντας ἢ τοῦ ἡμέρου, ἔς τε τὰς τέχνας ὀξυτέρους τε καὶ ξυνετωτέρους καὶ τὰ πολέμια ἀμείνους εὑρήσεις· καὶ τἄλλα τὰ ἐν τῇ γῇ φυόμενα πάντα ἀκόλουθα ἐόντα τῇ γῇ. αἱ μὲν ἐναντιώταται φύσιές τε καὶ ἰδέαι ἔχουσιν οὕτως· ἀπὸ δὲ τουτέων τεκμαιρόμενος τὸ λοιπὰ ἐνθυμέεσθαι, καὶ οὐχ ἁμαρτήσῃ. 24. And there are in Europe other tribes, differing from one another in stature, shape, and courage: the differences are those I formerly mentioned, and will now explain more clearly. Such as inhabit a country which is mountainous, rugged, elevated, and well watered, and where the changes of the seasons are very great, are likely to have great variety of shapes among them, and to be naturally of an enterprising and warlike disposition; and such persons are apt to have no little of the savage and ferocious in their nature; but such as dwell in places which are low-lying, abounding in meadows and ill ventilated, and who have a larger proportion of hot than of cold winds, and who make use of warm waters- these are not likely to be of large stature nor well proportioned, but are of a broad make, fleshy, and have black hair; and they are rather of a dark than of a light complexion, and are less likely to be phlegmatic than bilious; courage and laborious enterprise are not naturally in them, but may be engendered in them by means of their institutions. And if there be rivers in the country which carry off the stagnant and rain water from it, these may be wholesome and clear; but if there be no rivers, but the inhabitants drink the waters of fountains, and such as are stagnant and marshy, they must necessarily have prominent bellies and enlarged spleens. But such as inhabit a high country, and one that is level, windy, and well-watered, will be large of stature, and like to one another; but their minds will be rather unmanly and gentle. Those who live on thin, ill-watered, and bare soils, and not well attempered in the changes of the seasons, in such a country they are likely to be in their persons rather hard and well braced, rather of a blond than a dark complexion, and in disposition and passions haughty and self-willed. For, where the changes of the seasons are most frequent, and where they differ most from one another, there you will find their forms, dispositions, and nature the most varied. These are the strongest of the natural causes of difference, and next the country in which one lives, and the waters; for, in general, you will find the forms and dispositions of mankind to correspond with the nature of the country; for where the land is fertile, soft, and well-watered, and supplied with waters from very elevated situations, so as to be hot in summer and cold in winter, and where the seasons are fine, there the men are fleshy, have ill-formed joints, and are of a humid temperament; they are not disposed to endure labor, and, for the most part, are base in spirit; indolence and sluggishness are visible in them, and to the arts they are dull, and not clever nor acute. When the country is bare, not fenced, and rugged, blasted by the winter and scorched by the sun, there you may see the hardy, hardy, slender, with well-shaped joints, well-braced, and shaggy; sharp, industry and vigilance accompany such a constitution; in morals and passions they are haughty and opinionative, inclining rather to the fierce than to the mild; and you will find them acute and ingenious as regards the arts, and excelling in military affairs; and likewise all the other productions of the earth corresponding to the earth itself. Thus it is with regard to the most opposite natures and shapes; drawing conclusions from them, you may judge of the rest without any risk of error.